Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Please see the attached files Due on 10th March. 1. Dat - Study Help
  

Please see the attached files

Due on 10th March.

1. Data & Results to be done (Use Study material and simulation link for this)

simulation link: ?https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/molecule-shapes?

2. Post Lab assignment to be done

Name __________________________

Module 5

Post-Lab Assignment

Short Answer (35 points)

Answer the following questions based on material covered in this module. (5 points each.)

(You must use complete sentences when answering each question.

1-point deduction per question not answered in complete sentences.)

1) Based on your data from the simulation, what is the connection between the number of electron groups and the electron geometry? ?

2) Describe how the electron geometry changes if you replace a bond with a lone pair. (Does it change?)

3) Describe how the molecule geometry changes if you replace a bond with a lone pair.

4) How is the bent geometry related to the trigonal planar geometry?

5) How is the bent geometry related to the tetrahedral geometry?

6) How is the trigonal pyramidal geometry related to the tetrahedral geometry?

7) For the molecules in the last part of the assignment, how close were your predictions? Explain. ?

Experiment 5:
Molecular Geometry

1

Data Collection and Results Pages Name: ___________________________________
Date: ___________________

Go to the simulation. Run the Model simulator.
Answer the following questions using complete sentences.

1. Play with the simulator a bit. Describe the geometry that you find most
interesting.

2. What options do you have that you can turn on and off?

3. What additional options do you have on the Real Molecules simulator?

4.Using only single-bonding (the first type) on the Model screen, build molecules
according to the following chart and fill in information. Use no Lone Pairs.

Number
of
Bonds

Molecule Geometry Electron Geometry Bond Angles Drawing

1

2

3

4

EXPERIMENT 5: MOLECULAR GEOMETRY 2

5. Now you will use some lone pairs to see how they affect the molecular shape.
Build models with the number of bonds and lone pairs you see in the chart.

6. Do any of the geometry names change if you use double or triple bonds instead of
single bonds? If yes, which ones?

Number
of
Bonds

Number
of Lone
Pairs

Molecule
Geometry

Electron
Geometry

Bond
Angles Drawing

1 0

2 0

3 0

2 1

4 0

3 1

2 2

1 3

EXPERIMENT 5: MOLECULAR GEOMETRY 3

7. The phrase ?electron groups? or ?electron clouds? is used in discussions of
molecular geometry to mean either a bond or lone pair on the central atom of a
molecule. Look at the chart you filled out for question 5. Total up the number of
electron groups (bonds and lone pairs) for each row in the chart and write it next to
the beginning of each row. How many different totals are there? What are they?

8. Relate the number of electron groups to the electron geometries:

No. of Groups Electron Geometry

1
2
3
4

9. Predict the molecular geometry of the following molecules. Build a model of each
compound in the Real Molecules simulator. (Turn on and off the lone pairs to see
the differences.) Confirm or correct each of your predictions:

Compound Predicted Molecule Geometry Actual Molecule Geometry

H2O

CO2

SO2

XeF2

BF3

ClF3

NH3

CH4

SF4

XeF4

BrF5

PCl5

SF6

Experiment 6

MOLECULAR GEOMETRY

Experiment 5: MOLECULAR GEOMETRY

Experiment 5: MOLECULAR GEOMETRY


Purpose: To build chemical structures using molecular models and to extract information about nonbonding groups of electrons on a central atom in a molecular model structure.

Introduction


Molecular Geometry:
The 3-dimensional shape of a molecule, the molecular geometry, plays an important part in how a substance reacts both physically and chemically. In your chemistry lectures you should have already learned how to write Lewis structures when given a molecular formula. This experiment will not deal with learning how to write Lewis structures. However, it is important to review a few terms before we proceed. We will be dealing with both neutral molecules (e.g. H2O) as well as polyatomic ions (e.g. NO3). The term ?species? will be used to indicate both neutral molecules and polyatomic ions.

A molecular formula tells us only which elements and how many atoms of each element are present. It does not tell us how they are bonded to each other. A Lewis structure takes us one step further by showing which atom is joined to which and whether an atom has nonbonding electrons (also known as lone pairs). It is important to note that generally a Lewis structure is not meant to show the geometry. Examples below show the difference in these terms:

lone pair

H2O

2 bonding electrons

= 1 covalent bond

molecular formula Lewis structure

Once you have established the correct Lewis structure for a substance, you would be able to determine its geometry by applying the VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) theory. The concept is based on the fact that electron pairs repel each other because they are all negatively charged. The geometry of the species would be based on how far apart electron pairs can move away from each other without breaking any bonds. For example, for water, there are four electron pairs on the oxygen atom (two pairs of bonding electrons and two lone pairs). The best spatial arrangement to keep the electron pairs apart would be in a tetrahedral geometry as shown below, with bond angles of 109.5.

In describing the molecule, however, we do not call it ?tetrahedral? because electrons are very small and we consider only the arrangement of the atoms in our description. Students often confuse the two geometries: geometry of the electron pairs and the geometry of the molecule itself. By molecular geometry we are referring to the arrangement of the atoms only, although that geometry is indeed affected by the location of the lone pairs. For water, the electron pair geometry is tetrahedral and the molecular geometry is bent or angular.

To avoid the confusion over electron pair geometry versus molecular geometry it would be best to consider the number of electron groups around a central atom. A center atom is any atom that has two or more atoms bonded to it. Each atom is bonded to a center atom by one group of electrons (regardless of whether the bond is single, double, or triple). A lone pair or a single electron is also described as one group. For ethylene shown below, we would consider each carbon atom as having 3 electron groups around them (the double bond counting as one electron group).

S has 3 electron groups

Each C has

3 electron groups

ethylene

sulfur dioxide

For sulfur dioxide, the sulfur atom has 3 electron groups around it (the double bond counts as one group, the lone pair counts as another electron group, and the single bond counts as yet another).

Table 12.1 shows the relationship between the number of electron groups and molecular geometry.

Table 12.1: Relationship of the Number of Electron Groups to Molecular Geometry

# of

bonding

groups about central atom

# of non-bonding groups about central atom

Total # of electron groups about central atom

Sketch

Molecular Geometry

& approx. Bond Angle*

Example

(Lewis structures)

2

0

2

linear

bond angle = 180

H?CN:

3

0

3

trigonal planar

bond angle = 120

2

1

3

:

bent (or angular)

bond angle 120

4

0

4

..

tetrahedral

bond angle = 109.5

3

1

4

..

:

trigonal pyramidal

bond angle 109.5

2

2

4

bent or angular

bond angle 109.5

*A bond angle is the angle between two bonds.

1

2

1

H

O

H

..

..

O

H

H

..

..

O

H

H

..

..

O

S

O

..

:

..

..

..

:

O

S

O

..

:

..

..

..

:

C

C

H

H

H

H

C

C

H

H

H

H

O

C

O

O

:

:

:

:

..

..

..

..

_

2

O

N

O

:

:

..

..

..

_

..

H

C

H

H

H

H

N

H

H

..

H

O

H

..

..

H

O

H

..

..

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