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Directions: Choose ONE of the following questions and write a well-thought-out historical essay. Be sure to answer all parts of the question.

?Man is born into this world; he neither creates nor shapes it but finds it ready-made about him; and he is expected to adapt himself to the existing order.?

~Ernst Cassier The Philosophy of the Enlightenment

1. The Enlightenment defined its movement of reform by igniting rational change throughout European society. As the great thinker, Immanuel Kant echoed from the hills of Prussia, the men of this age sought out reason in order to challenge the perceptions of the world by daring to know. Knowledge and practicality, therefore, seemed to govern Europeans in this so-called ?Age of Reason.? In a thoughtful essay, comment on the nature and use of reason throughout the different platforms in European society. What exactly did these great philosophes wish to change? How especially did the political arena fit into this concept?

2. Historians have argued over the course of the French Revolution since its inception in 1789. Some historians have viewed the events and actions as unnecessary, especially the violence that would ensue following the execution of Louis XVI in 1793. Other scholars have shown that the revolution was inevitable and therefore political action against the established government was ineluctable. Clearly, the Ancien R?gime was hopelessly out-of-date, but was the revolution a desideratum? Moreover, was the violent force justified in overthrowing an unrepresentative government? In a thoughtful essay, comment on the various viewpoints and perspectives of the French Revolution

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