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Part 3:

Manually code each of the transcripts that were provided. Do this by marking up the transcripts with highlighting, colors, letters, symbols etc. Provide these as Appendices A, B, C, and D to accompany your assignment.

Participant 5

Participant 5: Interview

Name of participant: LGF

Teaching Certification(s): Elementary K-6;

Education Level (Highest degree attained) M.A.

Total years of teaching experience: 7

Years of teaching students in preschool through third grade? 3

Date & time of interview: 8/13/18- 12:00

1. Are you currently or have you ever implemented a group contingency plan to manage your students? behavior? (If the response if ?yes? then ask all questions-; if the response is ?no? then proceed to use questions 8-10.)

Yes.

2. How long have you been?implementing group contingency plans? How did you learn about the plan?

Well I feel like it depends on the year because there’s some years where my classes needed it more than others. So I’m going to probably say past few years I’ve become more consistent with it so we can say half the time maybe 5 years.Well just from reading and seeing what other teachers are doing for class management

3. Describe the type of group contingency plan you are using. ?(If not provided in the answer, ask about behavior criteria, schedule reinforcement, types of reinforcers, BSP, tracking system, use of visuals.)

So this year I started using the beeper system. So I would set a timer for a certain amount of time and it would always be varied. It could be 5 minutes, it could be 2 minutes, it could be 10 minutes. And the students would never know when the beeper would go off. But when the beeper did do off I would do a quick scan around the room and those students that were on task would get a hole punch. If they had a certain amount of hole punches they could cash it in for a reward?But I would also use it as well, the same plan for the whole class. So I used it for whole group things and individual things. I made it clear there were times where everyone had to be doing something so that everyone can get a point and then there were individual students I would recognize. The students knew what was expected of them, how to earn, what the reward would be. There was a whole discussion about it so that there would be no surprises

4. How did you decide to use this type of?plan?

I?ve struggled with this and have usedvarious things over the years. The plan was shared with me by one my coworkers, the school social worker, and then another teacher using a punch card. So I kind of just (pause) sort of married the two of them together.um I made it my own I had to feel comfortable with it was a period of time where I thought like you know what I can’t be setting the beeper all the time so I’m just going to sort of overall if the class is quiet during that time we can all get a punch. When I first started it, I thought about the periods where I felt like either my class was having the most difficult time being quiet. I mean I kinda feel like yes it’s nice to be rewarded but at the same time there’s just certain expectations that like we need to be quiet during reading we need so reading workshop was always a quiet time in my class I didn’t really use it. But I used it for other times where I felt like the chattiness could be an issue. and I think I would continue to do that I think the second graders talking when it’s not really time to talk um you that when I feel I need this the most.

5. How do you monitor the effectiveness of this plan? Does anyone else assist in monitoring or overseeing the plan?

I think it was effective because truthfully like most of the time when I gave them a reminder about the behavioral expectation, I do really feel like they responded to it. Um the kids seemed excited about it. They loved the punch cards. Um and overall I think I had a really well managed class so to me that?s sort of the evidence. I mean I don’t know for sure maybe if I didn’t have this they would have been not as well behaved. um and I feel like because I varied when they were going to get them sometimes I didn’t say that I’m looking for a quiet class but I’m when I noticed the kids are really quiet I would say know wow everyone?s been doing such an amazing job I’m going to come around and give everyone a punch. So it was very unexpected that’s why I didn’t know we need the buzzer all the time I think you know I just kept them on their toes. Um and overall I think I had a really well managed class so to me that sort of the evidence I mean I don’t know for sure maybe if I didn’t have this they would have been but I think it’s nice to have a visual and know kids are earning.

6. How do you determine what the reinforcers will be associated with the group contingency plan?

Once the kids hit 20 punches, they could earn a prize. Sometimes it [the reward] would be a homework pass, other times it would be something else and we talked about what were things that they would want. So it was really based on their interest, so that um they were really invested in it.

7. Do you believe this plan has decreased disruptive behavior and increased appropriate behavior (Ask their beliefs about specific components they believe contributes to reducing disruptive behavior and increasing appropriate behavior, if not provided)?

I think the individual students seeing that maybe other students happen to have gotten more hole punches made them see that others were really doing their work, and I think just seeing that the kids thought that they better get to work

8. Have you ever implemented an individual contingency plan?

Yes, I have done different plans. Other kids wanted rewards. You know other years when I had sticker charts for certain kids the prize associated with it in school the other kids would question it. So yeah I mean I think kids do get excited with it um get excited about it when they see other kids are getting. So I think the group plan is better.

9. What behavior management resources/supports are currently available to you for managing classroom behavior?

Well definitely piggybacking off of other teachers as a resource. I’m always asking other teachers and the child study team, I think they always have really good ideas being that they work with so many different kinds of kids those are probably the two. You know I don’t do so much research online like Pinterest I just don’t find it helpful I like to sort of what’s been tried and done by people that I respect.

10. Are there any final thoughts or feelings concerning behavior management you wish to share?

I think that that my thoughts have changed a little bit about it. Like I said before I have had some years where I haven’t done anything you know I have done some individual work for the kids that need it up but never for everybody. But I kind of feel that even if you have a really good class sometimes it’s nice to be rewarded and it’s that positive feedback. So often we focus on the negative. so I think that whether I have like an amazing? ya know like going to target chattiness during quiet work, even if I have an amazing class, I think it’s still nice to be able to continue to reward for that so that continues. Because I think that with second graders they can slide. So I just thinking going in with a fresh thought that it’s important to have something you know to start the year out with and set the standards.

CRITICAL INCIDENT REPORT

Have you experienced any positive or rewarding outcomes regarding the implementation of a group contingency plan? If your answer is yes, please describe your experience(s) in detail. If your answer is no, please indicate whether you would change your implementation of a group contingency plan, and why.


Yes- I have noticed my students are invested in the plan and want to reach the goal. They get excited when I announce that I am looking for quiet workers or announce the beeper has been set. Their body language and verbal language is proof they are invested. More importantly, I see good behavior when the plan begins for that time period.


Have you experienced any unsuccessful outcomes regarding the implementation of a group contingency plan? Please describe.

No, I have not experienced unsuccessful results. However, I do think I need to do a better job at varying the reward to keep it fresh.

Participant 9

Participant 9: Interview

Name of participant: LAZ

Teaching Certification(s): Elementary K-6;

Education Level (Highest degree attained) M.A.

Total years of teaching experience: 12

Years of teaching students in preschool through third grade? 9

Date &time of interview: 8/3/18- 5:00

1. Are you currently or have you ever implemented a group contingency plan to manage your students? behavior? (If the response if ?yes? then ask all questions-; if the response is ?no? then proceed to use questions 8-10.)

No

PROBE: Why have you not implemented a group contingency plan? Please describe the specific reasons why you have not implemented a group contingency behavior plan with your students.

I feel that my students would not benefit, at the age and skill level that I teach, from that type of reinforcement system. ?Most of the students entering have very few skills. I need to teach basic readiness skills which need to be broken down and reinforced immediately. ?I am fortunate enough to have and always have had enough support in my classroom to have a staff/student ratio of 1:1 or 1:2 so that readiness skills can be taught and reinforced immediately in an individual format, rather than a whole class approach.I also feel like the students need to have some sort of social awareness of others for a dependent or interdependent group contingency plan to work. ?They need to realize that their behavior affects everyone else and care about that fact.

8. Have you ever implemented an individual contingency plan?

Yes, so I use a token boards for all my students for work completion. It could be for different things. Initially, clearly the children have to understand how a token works. So usually I would do a 1:1 token for a response and then maybe move to 5 or 10 responses. Then you would just change the ratio of how you would reinforce. You can also change the amount of tokens before a child earns a reward. it also could be a time based like you’re going to earn tokens over a certain amount of time. So, I have done it different ways, it depends on the student. so,there is usually a choice board, so they can choose what they want to work for, I would have a visual. And that would go on the board somewhere. And when they earn the token, they would receive their reinforcement. The CST and the other teachers help me. I mean I think really everybody on the team, the related service providers, um you know are valuable in their own way. It can be based on their experience, or um you know whatever their expertise is. Sometimes there might be behaviors related to their area. So, if we are doing a gross motor activity and there is a problem I can ask the OT or PT for suggestions to see if there is something I can do. I mean it?s really everybody that helps.

9. What behavior management resources/supports are currently available to you for managing classroom behavior?

The school psychologist and the school social worker have provided a lot of the resources that I use on a daily basis. These are very helpful to me.

10. Are there any final thoughts or feelings concerning behavior management you wish to share?

I think in my type of classroom if you can?t get the behavior under control, then it? that?s primary, you have to do that first or else you are never going to get to teach. And I also look like its that it is preschool and that social/emotional component um is almost more important in the very beginning than teaching the letters and the numbers. I mean it?s almost secondary to focusing on behavior and how you?just generally thing about the behavior. And the other things like sitting in a chair, participating, those kind of learner behaviors. As well as refraining from hitting and screaming and all those things. That primary and has to be focused on first before you can even get to anything else. I kind of feel like when we focus on those other things (not that they are not important) but it just like not accurate, if that can show all those skills, but can?t behavior, then those skills are not functional. You can?t use it if you can?t behave. So, it?s really? l I feel like my job with the kids I have, is to getting the behavior as under control as a I can in order to start teaching things other preschoolers may be learning.

THIS RESEARCH PARTICIPANT DID NOT COMPLETE A CRITICAL INCIDENT REPORT SINCE SHE DOES NOT IMPLEMENT GROUP CONTINGENCY PLANS

Participant 6

Participant 6: Interview

Name of participant: BDT

Teaching Certification(s): P-3; Elementary K-6;Sp.Ed P-12

Education Level (Highest degree attained) M.A.

Total years of teaching experience: 2

Years of teaching students in preschool through third grade? 2

Date &time of interview: 7/23/18- 10:00

1. Are you currently or have you ever implemented a group contingency plan to manage your students? behavior? (If the response if ?yes? then ask all questions-; if the response is ?no? then proceed to use questions 8-10.)

Yes.

2. How long have you been?implementing group contingency plans? How did you learn about group contingency plans?

I guessthe last two school year.I learned about the plan through the CST who introduced the program and gave me a few articles to read on group contingency plans and the background on the specific plan? I also learned about class plans during my first year. I did work with an experienced teacher um who observed me in the classroom and reviewed with me different strategies and techniques to improve student behavior.

3. Describe the type of group contingency plan you are using. ?(If not provided in the answer, ask about behavior criteria, schedule reinforcement, types of reinforcers, BSP, tracking system, use of visuals.)

So it?s a whole class behavior plan that [pause] um it uses a visual of a caterpillar that has circles that move up to the head of the caterpillar. And the overall goal is to encourage students to follow classroom rules and routines. As they follow those rules and make positive choices in the classroom a butterfly moves up the circles of the caterpillar and once the butterfly reaches top of the caterpillar’s head there is a whole class wide reward system. So in a bag there’s visual cards that show what the reward would be so for example there?s a dance party, umm they could time with bubbles, they could earn free choice time. That part of the plan is adaptable based on the interests of the student and once the top of the caterpillar is reached we pull one of those visuals from the bag and the entire class gets to participate in reinforce. [pause] It is important to review with students what the classroom rules and expectations are and to let students know that you’re initiating the plan so you can use it at different times during the day.I mainly used it during circle time and other whole group activities.

4. How did you decide to use this type of?plan?

From mentoring and advice from the CST. And then also once I started using the plan I saw the benefits and effectiveness of it so I continued to use it.

5. How do you monitor the effectiveness of this plan? Does anyone else assist in monitoring or overseeing the plan?

I guess based on how often the reinforcers are met, so how often we meet the goal

6. How do you determine what the reinforcers will be associated with the group contingency plan?

Just based on what I’ve seen in my classroom and the interests that I know my students have. So for example they love go noodle which we have used in the past so I knew that would be something they would want to earn. Um also on the playground we have used bubbles before and they loved it?so I kind of use my own background knowledge on the students and then also in class discussion about it

7. Do you believe this plan has decreased disruptive behavior and increased appropriate behavior (Ask their beliefs about specific components they believe contributes to reducing disruptive behavior and increasing appropriate behavior, if not provided)?

Yes, um? I think during a whole group activity if I?m able to pinpoint a student who is making a good choice it reminds me to give that verbal praise and then it?s coupled with the visual movement up the chart which really motivates the other students because they see the direct reward and because they are working as a whole group it gives them the feeling of teamwork and the students want, you know they want to get the rewards so once they see that one student helped them get to the top it encourages the other students to make similar choices.

8. Have you ever implemented an individual contingency plan?

Yes I have.I really like how the whole group contingency plan works because it takes the emphasis off of just one student and really puts the responsibility on the class as a whole? so you’re able to focus on more behaviors at one time… and it encourages a classroom culture and it allows you to kind of spread your praise around versus constantly either redirecting or praising one student. When the whole class works as a team to make good choices, the entire class benefits and receives a class wide reinforcer which increases the effectiveness of the plan. The plan has also encouraged my students to work cooperatively and has motivated the entire class. I have run an individual plan along with the group plan. I think in a way the whole group is more beneficial? because it gives?say you have one student that does require some type of behavior plan and you are using an individual plan it can sometimes I guess need like constant change? whereas I feel the whole group plan doesn?t lose um its interest as much, so you can change it up a little bit more and I think that sometimes if you give maybe a child that needs redirecting or needs some assistance in the classroom, if you give them too much attention for a specific behavior it could increase the behavior. Where this really limits how much attention is just given to one student while they still are being encouraged by the plan and the reinforcer and it shows the whole class that when everybody does make good choices (pause) or a specific student that their friends could benefit from it as well as versus just one student getting a reinforcer.

9. What behavior management resources/supports are currently available to you for managing classroom behavior?

Um it wasn?t so specific but we definitely reviewed in my coursework we reviewed different types of plans you can use different types of reinforcers so I wasn’t familiar with this specific plan but I?ve definitely been introduced to the use of positive praise in the classroom, um how to increase certain behaviors and decrease certain behaviors. Um so I would think like a general overview of behavior management in some course, not specific a course

10. Are there any final thoughts or feelings concerning behavior management you wish to share?

So I always had a visual rules board in my classroom which works really nice actually with this specific plan because you can reference it at the beginning of a whole group activity and um I like to make those rule charts with my students so that they are a part of coming up with what they think would be effective rules to have in our classroom. I think through this whole group contingency behavior plan I’ve really increased my use of positive reinforcement in the classroom and positive praise which I think just lifts the overall sentiment in the classroom and the students aren?t seeking to gain as much attention because it’s already built into the way the whole group activities work and really limiting the use of redirecting in a sense of using language that explains what the students should ?do versus what they shouldn?t do.

CRITICAL INCIDENT REPORT

During the interview process, you indicated that you have or currently are implementing a group contingency plan. ?Please respond to the following questions. You may handwrite or type your responses. Thank you for your time.

Have you experienced any positive or rewarding outcomes regarding the implementation of a group contingency plan? If your answer is yes, please describe your experience(s) in detail. If your answer is no, please indicate whether you would change your implementation of a group contingency plan, and why.

Yes I have experienced positive and rewarding outcomes while implementing a group contingency plan in my pre-K classroom. The plan has enabled the students to work as a team to follow classroom rules and has greatly increased my use of positive reinforcement. the visual nature of the plan has also helped my students to clearly see the benefits of their positive choices. The plan is also adaptable, allowing the positive reinforcers to be directly related to the interest of the students. When the whole class works as a team to make good choices, the entire class benefits and receives a class wide reinforcer which increases the effectiveness of the plan. the plan has also encouraged my students to work cooperatively and has motivated the entire class. the plan has also helped me by reminding me to repetitively review classroom rules and to set clear and concise expectations. the plan also encourages the use of behavior specific praise connected with the visual increase which allows the whole class to again hear expectations coupled with a visual response that brings them closer to receiving their class-wide reward.

Have you experienced any unsuccessful outcomes regarding the implementation of a group contingency plan? Please describe.

No response provided

Participant 3

Participant 3: Interview

Name of participant:

Teaching Certification(s): Elementary K-6;

Education Level (Highest degree attained) M.A.

Total years of teaching experience: 5

Years of teaching students in preschool through third grade? 5

Date & time of interview: 8/3/18- 11:00

1. Are you currently or have you ever implemented a group contingency plan to manage your students? behavior? (If the response if ?yes? then ask all questions-; if the response is ?no? then proceed to use questions 8-10)

Yes.

2. How long have you been?implementing group contingency plans? How did you learn about the plan?

The last three years. So my two years before this district, I taught in Oakland California and it was like a disadvantaged community I guess really a different environment than what I teach in now. so I spent a lot of time with their school psychologist like talking about how to manage behavior so things that I was like building but it’s like the last three years is when I really like started to implement them.

3. Describe the type of group contingency plan you are using. ?(If not provided in the answer, ask about behavior criteria, schedule reinforcement, types of reinforcers, BSP, tracking system, use of visuals.)

I’m currently using a sticker chart? so I have like 12 different classes that I see in a week. And the chart would just have the class name on the chart and then for any like positive behavior during whole class transitions or when everyone is focused on the assignment, or everyone follows directions the first time, they can earn like earn the star or a sticker? and then for every like 15 stars or stickers they earned like a classroom reward. which was usually like 10 or 15 minutes of free time so like at the end of the class once they completed their task they can move on to either like free computer game or they could build with some of the building materials.

4. How did you decide to use this type of?plan?

I had seen another teacher use it maybe another like specialist teacher. I just use those tracker things. I like to keep it posted. So in previous years I used class dojo but it wasn’t always accessible when I had something else on the smart board. I liked having this that they can even see it when we are using the smart board. Also I can have a helper do the stars or stickers for me as like a responsibility. They were also excited to do that so I tried class dojo and some other ones and they were still a group wide and still like the interdependent where everyone needed to be doing it. But I saw this one and thought I could be easier to manage for me so I gave it a try and for the most part think it went well this year.

5. How do you monitor the effectiveness of this plan? Does anyone else assist in monitoring or overseeing the plan?

I guess I seehow many stars they like are earning. it also checks me, like am I rewarding them when I should be. And if that?s like a motivating factor so if I were to say something like if you have a smooth transition back to your desks you’ll earn a sticker. Or we need like three more to get to our goal. If that seems to be like? like ?some of them students get like really excited about that. Or they?ll come in and be like two more and we get be free time today.

6. How do you determine what the reinforcers will be associated with the group contingencyplan?

so that I have tried it for a couple years. I don’t want to spend money on like a treasure chest I also think it could be a lot for having 300 kids. I felt like giving them free time with things they liked seemed to have worked. Like something that they were looking forward to earning?so in general I go by their interests. They like playing on the computer just like free games and some like to build so they kind of have a choice of couple different things.

7. Do you believe this plan has decreased disruptive behavior and increased appropriate behavior (Ask their beliefs about specific components they believe contributes to reducing disruptive behavior and increasing appropriate behavior, if not provided)?

For me I think making it like posted and available for them to see changed it. This way I can have someone in charge of stars for that week and their job was to be like anytime I noticed that were on task they get to put it on and they liked having that responsibility. So I think having a visually accessible to them so they can check with it at any minute and compare themselves to other classes or grade levels. They will be like wow we have like the most in second grade. This competition helped them to behave. That was a factor, but not the main thing.

8. Have you ever implemented an individual contingency plan?

Yes. I do find that the individual plans are challenging when I have so many classes like I need to be more organized with like remembering that. Or sometimes they don’t always have the datasheet. But as far as my class, the group plan is effective overall because I only have like 40 minutes with the students

9. What behavior management resources/supports are currently available to you for managing classroom behavior?

Well I have definitely come to the child study team now. I know that the school psychologist and the school social worker did a presentation on classroom management and I use a lot of the resources they provided. It gave me a lot of ideas and things I might try next year and add on to what I am doing. I have also asked other teachers. And teachers in a similar position as mine, that see multiple classes for a shorter period of time. So mostly just like talking to more experts, since I still only have taught for a few years.

10. Are there any final thoughts or feelings concerning behavior management you wish to share?

Um I just feel like this is something that like I?m always working on. And I definitely have a hard time figuring out what works because my set up is different than a classroom teachers. So I?m still struggling to figure out what works for me and like the students. I do feel like organization would help me be better at it. I do think that sometimes this plan isn?t working for this class, but it is for another class. Do I abandon it completely, change it for that one class. How do I make it fit for everyone? I ask myself, is that really a possibility?

CRITICAL INCIDENT REPORT

During the interview process, you indicated that you have or currently are implementing a group contingency plan. ?Please respond to the following questions. You may handwrite or type your responses. Thank you for your time.

Have you experienced any positive or rewarding outcomes regarding the implementation of a group contingency plan? If your answer is yes, please describe your experience(s) in detail. If your answer is no, please indicate whether you would change your implementation of a group contingency plan, and why.

Yes, I have noticed some positive behavior changes with challenging classes. I have also noticed some challenging students shift some of their behaviors due to the group contingency plans because they want to fit in and they want to earn the group reward.

Have you experienced any unsuccessful outcomes regarding the implementation of a group contingency plan? Please describe.

Yes, there are some classes or some specific students who have not found success with the group contingency plans because they did not meet their needs and/or did not motivate them to change their behavior. ?For example, I had one student who had frequently had meltdowns in class and was not socially motivated so his behavior was not impacted by the group contingency plan.

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