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DO THE DOCUMENT CAS464_advocacy.docx

ALSO I ATTACHED 2 DOCUMENTS THAT NEED FOR THE WORK (Ethics Position Statement, Advocacy Strategies_CSUFCAS.pdf

Please read the scenario.

A family arrives at a community clinic with their 2?-year-old son, Matthew. The parents report that Matthew has been struggling in his Early Head Start classroom. After more than six months in the program, Matthew continues to cry intensely at drop-off for at least 45 minutes each day. He has become increasingly aggressive toward other children, and the program director has issued multiple warnings to Matthew?s parents about his problematic behavior. For the last three weeks, the school has called Matthew?s mother several times per week to request that she pick him up early due to behavioral concerns.

Matthew?s parents report significant anxiety about the possibility of losing Matthew?s EHS placement. They have struggled to find affordable child care and previously had to switch providers every few months. In addition, the family reports significant financial strain, which has been exacerbated by concerns that Matthew?s mother may be at risk of losing her job if she continues to leave work early to support Matthew. Matthew?s parents acknowledge fighting daily about how best to manage his behaviors and report feeling that they are in crisis.


Step 1: Use the NAEYC Ethical Code of Conduct to list what ideals and principles should guide a professional in working with this family.

Step 2: Using at least four of the ethical ideals or principles, create an advocacy plan.

Step 3: Theorize about the three steps of advocated listed under the chart.

Create an advocacy plan.

Create an advocacy plan to support the family described above. In developing your advocacy plan, describe strategies relevant at multiple levels in the environment (e.g., family context, school context, work environment). Describe at least four advocacy strategies, including the purpose of the advocacy strategy. Indicate whether each strategy should be considered an example of case or administrative advocacy.

? Case advocacy is acting on behalf of a client (individual, family, or group) in order to access needed resources, and services.

? Administrative advocacy encompasses a variety of positions concerned with influencing the formation, application, or change of rules within an organization.

Advocacy Strategy

Purpose of Advocacy Strategy

Type of Advocacy Strategy (e.g., case or administrative)

Answer these questions as you theorize:

1. Identify the problem

2. Identify the resources

3. Identify the barriers (include laws, policies, and power)

Adapted from CSUF CAS Department Advanced Practicum Assignment

Code of Ethical Conduct
and Statement of Commitment

A position statement of the National Association for the Education of Young Children

NAEYC recognizes that those who work with young
children face many daily decisions that have moral and
ethical implications. The NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct
offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a
common basis for resolving the principal ethical dilemmas
encountered in early childhood care and education. The
Statement of Commitment is not part of the Code but is a
personal acknowledgement of an individual?s willingness to
embrace the distinctive values and moral obligations of the
field of early childhood care and education.
The primary focus of the Code is on daily practice with
children and their families in programs for children from birth
through 8 years of age, such as infant/toddler programs,
preschool and prekindergarten programs, child care centers,
hospital and child life settings, family child care homes,
kindergartens, and primary classrooms. When the issues
involve young children, then these provisions also apply to
specialists who do not work directly with children, including
program administrators, parent educators, early childhood
adult educators, and officials with responsibility for program
monitoring and licensing. (Note: See also the ?Code of Ethi-
cal Conduct: Supplement for Early Childhood Adult Educa-
tors,? online at
pdf. and the ?Code of Ethical Conduct: Supplement for Early
Childhood Program Administrators,? online at http://www.

Core values

Standards of ethical behavior in early childhood care
and education are based on commitment to the follow-
ing core values that are deeply rooted in the history of
the field of early childhood care and education. We have
made a commitment to
? Appreciate childhood as a unique and valuable stage of
the human life cycle
? Base our work on knowledge of how children develop
and learn
? Appreciate and support the bond between the child
and family
? Recognize that children are best understood and sup-
ported in the context of family, culture,* community, and
? Respect the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each
individual (child, family member, and colleague)
? Respect diversity in children, families, and colleagues
? Recognize that children and adults achieve their full
potential in the context of relationships that are based
on trust and respect

* The term culture includes ethnicity, racial identity, economic
level, family structure, language, and religious and political beliefs,
which profoundly influence each child?s development and relation-
ship to the world.

Copyright ? 2011 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children


Revised April 2005,
Reaffirmed and Updated May 2011

Endorsed by the Association for Childhood Education International and

Southern Early Childhood Association

Adopted by the National Association for Family Child Care

2NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Revised May 2011

Conceptual framework

The Code sets forth a framework of professional respon-
sibilities in four sections. Each section addresses an area
of professional relationships: (1) with children, (2) with
families, (3) among colleagues, and (4) with the commu-
nity and society. Each section includes an introduction
to the primary responsibilities of the early childhood
practitioner in that context. The introduction is followed
by a set of ideals (I) that reflect exemplary professional
practice and by a set of principles (P) describing prac-
tices that are required, prohibited, or permitted.
The ideals reflect the aspirations of practitioners.
The principles guide conduct and assist practitioners in
resolving ethical dilemmas.* Both ideals and principles
are intended to direct practitioners to those questions
which, when responsibly answered, can provide the
basis for conscientious decision making. While the Code
provides specific direction for addressing some ethical
dilemmas, many others will require the practitioner to
combine the guidance of the Code with professional
The ideals and principles in this Code present a
shared framework of professional responsibility that
affirms our commitment to the core values of our field.
The Code publicly acknowledges the responsibilities
that we in the field have assumed, and in so doing sup-
ports ethical behavior in our work. Practitioners who
face situations with ethical dimensions are urged to seek
guidance in the applicable parts of this Code and in the
spirit that informs the whole.
Often ?the right answer??the best ethical course of
action to take?is not obvious. There may be no readily
apparent, positive way to handle a situation. When one
important value contradicts another, we face an ethical
dilemma. When we face a dilemma, it is our professional
responsibility to consult the Code and all relevant par-
ties to find the most ethical resolution.

Section I

Ethical Responsibilities to Children

Childhood is a unique and valuable stage in the human
life cycle. Our paramount responsibility is to provide
care and education in settings that are safe, healthy,
nurturing, and responsive for each child. We are commit-

ted to supporting children?s development and learning;
respecting individual differences; and helping children
learn to live, play, and work cooperatively. We are also
committed to promoting children?s self-awareness, com-
petence, self-worth, resiliency, and physical well-being.


I-1.1?To be familiar with the knowledge base of early
childhood care and education and to stay informed
through continuing education and training.

I-1.2?To base program practices upon current knowl-
edge and research in the field of early childhood educa-
tion, child development, and related disciplines, as well
as on particular knowledge of each child.

I-1.3?To recognize and respect the unique qualities,
abilities, and potential of each child.

I-1.4?To appreciate the vulnerability of children and
their dependence on adults.

I-1.5?To create and maintain safe and healthy settings
that foster children?s social, emotional, cognitive, and
physical development and that respect their dignity
and their contributions.

I-1.6?To use assessment instruments and strategies
that are appropriate for the children to be assessed,
that are used only for the purposes for which they
were designed, and that have the potential to benefit

I-1.7?To use assessment information to understand
and support children?s development and learning, to
support instruction, and to identify children who may
need additional services.

I-1.8?To support the right of each child to play and
learn in an inclusive environment that meets the needs
of children with and without disabilities.

I-1.9?To advocate for and ensure that all children,
including those with special needs, have access to the
support services needed to be successful.

I-1.10?To ensure that each child?s culture, language,
ethnicity, and family structure are recognized and val-
ued in the program.

I-1.11?To provide all children with experiences in a
language that they know, as well as support children
in maintaining the use of their home language and in
learning English.

I-1.12?To work with families to provide a safe and
smooth transition as children and families move from
one program to the next.

* There is not necessarily a corresponding principle for each ideal.

Copyright ? 2011 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children

3NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Revised May 2011


P-1.1?Above all, we shall not harm children. We shall
not participate in practices that are emotionally dam-
aging, physically harmful, disrespectful, degrading,
dangerous, exploitative, or intimidating to children.
This principle has precedence over all others in
this Code.

P-1.2?We shall care for and educate children in positive
emotional and social environments that are cognitively
stimulating and that support each child?s culture, lan-
guage, ethnicity, and family structure.

P-1.3?We shall not participate in practices that discrimi-
nate against children by denying benefits, giving special
advantages, or excluding them from programs or
activities on the basis of their sex, race, national origin,
immigration status, preferred home language, religious
beliefs, medical condition, disability, or the marital
status/family structure, sexual orientation, or religious
beliefs or other affiliations of their families. (Aspects of
this principle do not apply in programs that have a law-
ful mandate to provide services to a particular popula-
tion of children.)

P-1.4?We shall use two-way communications to involve
all those with relevant knowledge (including families
and staff) in decisions concerning a child, as appropri-
ate, ensuring confidentiality of sensitive information.
(See also P-2.4.)

P-1.5?We shall use appropriate assessment systems,
which include multiple sources of information, to
provide information on children?s learning and devel-

P-1.6?We shall strive to ensure that decisions such as
those related to enrollment, retention, or assignment
to special education services, will be based on mul-
tiple sources of information and will never be based
on a single assessment, such as a test score or a single

P-1.7?We shall strive to build individual relationships
with each child; make individualized adaptations in
teaching strategies, learning environments, and cur-
ricula; and consult with the family so that each child
benefits from the program. If after such efforts have
been exhausted, the current placement does not meet
a child?s needs, or the child is seriously jeopardizing
the ability of other children to benefit from the pro-
gram, we shall collaborate with the child?s family and
appropriate specialists to determine the additional
services needed and/or the placement option(s) most
likely to ensure the child?s success. (Aspects of this

principle may not apply in programs that have a lawful
mandate to provide services to a particular population
of children.)

P-1.8?We shall be familiar with the risk factors for and
symptoms of child abuse and neglect, including physi-
cal, sexual, verbal, and emotional abuse and physical,
emotional, educational, and medical neglect. We shall
know and follow state laws and community procedures
that protect children against abuse and neglect.

P-1.9?When we have reasonable cause to suspect child
abuse or neglect, we shall report it to the appropri-
ate community agency and follow up to ensure that
appropriate action has been taken. When appropriate,
parents or guardians will be informed that the referral
will be or has been made.

P-1.10?When another person tells us of his or her
suspicion that a child is being abused or neglected, we
shall assist that person in taking appropriate action in
order to protect the child.

P-1.11?When we become aware of a practice or situa-
tion that endangers the health, safety, or well-being of
children, we have an ethical responsibility to protect
children or inform parents and/or others who can.

Section II

Ethical Responsibilities to Families

Families* are of primary importance in children?s de-
velopment. Because the family and the early childhood
practitioner have a common interest in the child?s well-
being, we acknowledge a primary responsibility to bring
about communication, cooperation, and collaboration
between the home and early childhood program in ways
that enhance the child?s development.


I-2.1?To be familiar with the knowledge base related to
working effectively with families and to stay informed
through continuing education and training.

I-2.2?To develop relationships of mutual trust and cre-
ate partnerships with the families we serve.

I-2.3?To welcome all family members and encourage
them to participate in the program, including involve-
ment in shared decision making.

* The term family may include those adults, besides parents, with
the responsibility of being involved in educating, nurturing, and
advocating for the child.

Copyright ? 2011 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children

4NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Revised May 2011

I-2.4?To listen to families, acknowledge and build upon
their strengths and competencies, and learn from
families as we support them in their task of nurturing

I-2.5?To respect the dignity and preferences of each
family and to make an effort to learn about its struc-
ture, culture, language, customs, and beliefs to ensure
a culturally consistent environment for all children and

I-2.6?To acknowledge families? childrearing values and
their right to make decisions for their children.

I-2.7?To share information about each child?s educa-
tion and development with families and to help them
understand and appreciate the current knowledge base
of the early childhood profession.

I-2.8?To help family members enhance their under-
standing of their children, as staff are enhancing their
understanding of each child through communications
with families, and support family members in the con-
tinuing development of their skills as parents.

I-2.9?To foster families? efforts to build support net-
works and, when needed, participate in building
networks for families by providing them with oppor-
tunities to interact with program staff, other families,
community resources, and professional services.


P-2.1?We shall not deny family members access to their
child?s classroom or program setting unless access is
denied by court order or other legal restriction.

P-2.2?We shall inform families of program philosophy,
policies, curriculum, assessment system, cultural prac-
tices, and personnel qualifications, and explain why we
teach as we do?which should be in accordance with
our ethical responsibilities to children (see Section I).

P-2.3?We shall inform families of and, when appropri-
ate, involve them in policy decisions. (See also I-2.3.)

P-2.4?We shall ensure that the family is involved in sig-
nificant decisions affecting their child. (See also P-1.4.)

P-2.5?We shall make every effort to communicate effec-
tively with all families in a language that they under-
stand. We shall use community resources for transla-
tion and interpretation when we do not have sufficient
resources in our own programs.

P-2.6?As families share information with us about their
children and families, we shall ensure that families? input
is an important contribution to the planning and imple-
mentation of the program.

P-2-7?We shall inform families about the nature and
purpose of the program?s child assessments and how
data about their child will be used.

P-2.8?We shall treat child assessment information con-
fidentially and share this information only when there
is a legitimate need for it.

P-2.9?We shall inform the family of injuries and inci-
dents involving their child, of risks such as exposures
to communicable diseases that might result in infec-
tion, and of occurrences that might result in emotional

P-2.10?Families shall be fully informed of any proposed
research projects involving their children and shall
have the opportunity to give or withhold consent
without penalty. We shall not permit or participate in
research that could in any way hinder the education,
development, or well-being of children.

P-2.11?We shall not engage in or support exploitation
of families. We shall not use our relationship with a
family for private advantage or personal gain, or enter
into relationships with family members that might im-
pair our effectiveness working with their children.

P-2.12?We shall develop written policies for the protec-
tion of confidentiality and the disclosure of children?s
records. These policy documents shall be made avail-
able to all program personnel and families. Disclosure
of children?s records beyond family members, program
personnel, and consultants having an obligation of
confidentiality shall require familial consent (except in
cases of abuse or neglect).

P-2.13?We shall maintain confidentiality and shall re-
spect the family?s right to privacy, refraining from dis-
closure of confidential information and intrusion into
family life. However, when we have reason to believe
that a child?s welfare is at risk, it is permissible to share
confidential information with agencies, as well as with
individuals who have legal responsibility for interven-
ing in the child?s interest.

P-2.14?In cases where family members are in conflict
with one another, we shall work openly, sharing our
observations of the child, to help all parties involved
make informed decisions. We shall refrain from becom-
ing an advocate for one party.

P-2.15?We shall be familiar with and appropriately refer
families to community resources and professional sup-
port services. After a referral has been made, we shall
follow up to ensure that services have been appropri-
ately provided.

Copyright ? 2011 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children

5NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Revised May 2011

P-3A.3?We shall exercise care in expressing views
regarding the personal attributes or professional
conduct of co-workers. Statements should be based on
firsthand knowledge, not hearsay, and relevant to the
interests of children and programs.

P-3A.4?We shall not participate in practices that dis-
criminate against a co-worker because of sex, race, na-
tional origin, religious beliefs or other affiliations, age,
marital status/family structure, disability, or sexual

B?Responsibilities to employers

I-3B.1?To assist the program in providing the highest

quality of service.
I-3B.2?To do nothing that diminishes the reputation

of the program in which we work unless it is violating
laws and regulations designed to protect children or is
violating the provisions of this Code.


P-3B.1?We shall follow all program policies. When we
do not agree with program policies, we shall attempt
to effect change through constructive action within the

P-3B.2?We shall speak or act on behalf of an organiza-
tion only when authorized. We shall take care to ac-
knowledge when we are speaking for the organization
and when we are expressing a personal judgment.

P-3B.3?We shall not violate laws or regulations de-
signed to protect children and shall take appropriate
action consistent with this Code when aware of such

P-3B.4?If we have concerns about a colleague?s be-
havior, and children?s well-being is not at risk, we may
address the concern with that individual. If children
are at risk or the situation does not improve after it has
been brought to the colleague?s attention, we shall re-
port the colleague?s unethical or incompetent behavior
to an appropriate authority.

P-3B.5?When we have a concern about circumstances
or conditions that impact the quality of care and
education within the program, we shall inform the
program?s administration or, when necessary, other
appropriate authorities.

Section III

Ethical Responsibilities to Colleagues
In a caring, cooperative workplace, human dignity is re-
spected, professional satisfaction is promoted, and posi-
tive relationships are developed and sustained. Based
upon our core values, our primary responsibility to
colleagues is to establish and maintain settings and rela-
tionships that support productive work and meet profes-
sional needs. The same ideals that apply to children also
apply as we interact with adults in the workplace. (Note:
Section III includes responsibilities to co-workers and to
employers. See the ?Code of Ethical Conduct: Supple-
ment for Early Childhood Program Administrators? for
responsibilities to personnel (employees in the original
2005 Code revision), online at

A?Responsibilities to co-workers


I-3A.1?To establish and maintain relationships of re-
spect, trust, confidentiality, collaboration, and coop-
eration with co-workers.

I-3A.2?To share resources with co-workers, collaborat-
ing to ensure that the best possible early childhood
care and education program is provided.

I-3A.3?To support co-workers in meeting their profes-
sional needs and in their professional development.

I-3A.4?To accord co-workers due recognition of profes-
sional achievement.


P-3A.1?We shall recognize the contributions of col-
leagues to our program and not participate in practices
that diminish their reputations or impair their effec-
tiveness in working with children and families.

P-3A.2?When we have concerns about the professional
behavior of a co-worker, we shall first let that person
know of our concern in a way that shows respect for
personal dignity and for the diversity to be found
among staff members, and then attempt to resolve the
matter collegially and in a confidential manner.

Copyright ? 2011 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children

6NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Revised May 2011

Section IV

Ethical Responsibilities to Community
and Society

Early childhood programs operate within the context
of their immediate community made up of families and
other institutions concerned with children?s welfare.
Our responsibilities to the community are to provide
programs that meet the diverse needs of families, to
cooperate with agencies and professions that share the
responsibility for children, to assist families in gaining
access to those agencies and allied professionals, and to
assist in the development of community programs that
are needed but not currently available.
As individuals, we acknowledge our responsibility to
provide the best possible programs of care and educa-
tion for children and to conduct ourselves with honesty
and integrity. Because of our specialized expertise
in early childhood development and education and
because the larger society shares responsibility for the
welfare and protection of young children, we acknowl-
edge a collective obligation to advocate for the best
interests of children within early childhood programs
and in the larger community and to serve as a voice for
young children everywhere.
The ideals and principles in this section are presented
to distinguish between those that pertain to the work of
the individual early childhood educator and those that
more typically are engaged in collectively on behalf of
the best interests of children?with the understanding
that individual early childhood educators have a shared
responsibility for addressing the ideals and principles
that are identified as ?collective.?

Ideal (Individual)

1-4.1?To provide the community with high-quality early
childhood care and education programs and services.

Ideals (Collective)

I-4.2?To promote cooperation among professionals and
agencies and interdisciplinary collaboration among
professions concerned with addressing issues in the
health, education, and well-being of young children,
their families, and their early childhood educators.

I-4.3?To work through education, research, and advo-
cacy toward an environmentally safe world in which
all children receive health care, food, and shelter; are
nurtured; and live free from violence in their home and
their communities.

I-4.4?To work through education, research, and ad-
vocacy toward a society in which all young children
have access to high-quality early care and education

I-4.5?To work to ensure that appropriate assessment
systems, which include multiple sources of informa-
tion, are used for purposes that benefit children.

I-4.6?To promote knowledge and understanding of
young children and their needs. To work toward
greater societal acknowledgment of children?s rights
and greater social acceptance of responsibility for the
well-being of all children.

I-4.7?To support policies and laws that promote the
well-being of children and families, and to work to
change those that impair their well-being. To partici-
pate in developing policies and laws that are needed,
and to cooperate with families and other individuals
and groups in these efforts.

I-4.8?To further the professional development of the
field of early childhood care and education and to
strengthen its commitment to realizing its core values
as reflected in this Code.

Principles (Individual)

P-4.1?We shall communicate openly and truthfully
about the nature and extent of services that we pro-

P-4.2?We shall apply for, accept, and work in positions
for which we are personally well-suited and profession-
ally qualified. We shall not offer services that we do not
have the competence, qualifications, or resources to

P-4.3?We shall carefully check references and shall not
hire or recommend for employment any person whose
competence, qualifications, or character makes him or
her unsuited for the position.

P-4.4?We shall be objective and accurate in report-
ing the knowledge upon which we base our program

P-4.5?We shall be knowledgeable about the appropri-
ate use of assessment strategies and instruments and
interpret results accurately to families.

Copyright ? 2011 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children

7NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Revised May 2011

P-4.6?We shall be familiar with laws and regulations
that serve to protect the children in our programs and
be vigilant in ensuring that these laws and regulations
are followed.

P-4.7?When we become aware of a practice or situa-
tion that endangers the health, safety, or well-being of
children, we have an ethical responsibility to protect
children or inform parents and/or others who can.

P-4.8?We shall not participate in practices that are in
violation of laws and regulations that protect the chil-
dren in our programs.

P-4.9?When we have evidence that an early childhood
program is violating laws or regulations protecting
children, we shall report the violation to appropriate au-
thorities who can be expected to remedy the situation.

P-4.10?When a program violates or requires its em-
ployees to violate this Code, it is permissible, after fair
assessment of the evidence, to disclose the identity of
that program.

Copyright ? 2011 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children

Principles (Collective)

P-4.11?When policies are enacted for purposes that do
not benefit children, we have a collective responsibility
to work to change these policies.

P-4-12?When we have evidence that an agency that
provides services intended to ensure children?s well-
being is failing to meet its obligations, we acknowledge
a collective ethical responsibility to report the problem
to appropriate authorities or to the public. We shall be
vigilant in our follow-up until the situation is resolved.

P-4.13?When a child protection agency fails to provide
adequate protection for abused or neglected children,
we acknowledge a collective ethical responsibility to
work toward the improvement of these services.

8NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Revised May 2011

Code of Ethics . Defines the core values of the field and
provides guidance for what professionals should
do when they encounter conflicting obligations or
responsibilities in their work.

Values . Qualities or principles that individuals believe
to be desirable or worthwhile and that they prize for
themselves, for others, and for the world in which
they live.


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