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CHAPTER 2

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

Project management has advanced rapidly across the world to a more developed and defined approach that is essential for the survival of any firm, this shows evolvement from the basic definition (set of approaches to managing projects). Harold (2018) analysed that project management is essential in every field as all dynamic set of arranged and monitored activities carried out to achieve certain objectives within a given time is considered a project (Ingason et al,2019), therefore project management can also be referred to as a business process. Numerous authors have given several definitions to project management because it is widely used term in many fields including finance, engineering, architecture, health and so on (Olateju et al,2011). The definitions slightly vary across each field as the definitions were edited to suit their various fields.

The construction industry in Nigeria is presently at a retrogressive state as it is faced with a lot of challenges leading to high number of project failures and abandonment. There are lots of failed projects scattered across the different states of the country, this has led to the gross reduction of the national GDP. Ijigah et al (2012) explained that the construction industry serves as a great source of income for most countries as it generates 7% of the GDP of most countries and even higher in some countries ranging from 12-14%. Nigeria?s construction industry generated higher GDP for the country from 1970-1980s with an estimate of 70%, the country focused on improving the sector greatly to generate more. Despite the high benefits of the construction industry to Nigeria, it has been faced with poor performance, poor utilization of project management approaches, and low quality which led to the gross reduction of the contribution of this sector to less than 1% in 2002 and even lesser in recent times. There has been increasing cases of failed projects across the country ranging from huge government projects to smaller private firm projects despite the huge funds disbursed into this sector.

Petar and Ivana (2018) stated that several complex problems faced by the construction industry frequently needs the full implementation of advanced and recent management approaches and practices for a more efficient result in this industry. It is highly important to implement the right project management approach in the planning, design and execution of the various projects carried out by these firms in Nigeria construction sector. Nigeria government and private firms disburse huge amount of money annually into the construction sector to improve existing service buildings and to provide more service buildings to the nation , these service buildings include hospitals , domestic and international airports , schools and so on. It is essential to choose the right project management approach to use in managing these projects as the approaches differ for different scale of projects. Project management methodologies help the construction in utilizing the limited resources disbursed into these projects by both the private and government stake holders.

2.2 Definition of terminologies associated with dissertation topic

2.2.1 Definition of the main terms

The general definition of a project according to Project Management Institute, PMI is a momentary attempt to create value through a unique creation, service, or outcome. All projects have the following characteristics: a start and end time, time schedule, objectives, goals, budget, team. ( ) defined project as combination of human and monetary resources to carry out a defined work with given requirements within a particular period of time and budget. Ingason et al (2019) defined a project as a dynamic set of arranged and monitored activities carried out to achieve certain objectives within a given time.

Tarila and Edward (2012) stated that a project is only successful when it has completed all its requirements, objectives, and goals within the stated budget, standard and time hence the need for project management as these are the main essence of project management. ( ) defined Project performance measures as sets of criteria that are used as standards in accurately determining the success rate of any project. For this to be ensured, it is necessary to make us of the right project management approaches in handling the projects throughout the entire project cycle. Project life cycle is defined as the entirety of a project right from the first action in its planning to the last action in its execution (the beginning and ending of a project). There are several definitions of project management over the years, different authors have defined the term to suit their various fields.

( ) defined project management as an art and science of planning , designing and executing while managing work from the beginning to the end of a project . It is also defined as an act of planning, designing, scheduling, managing, and controlling series of project activities to attain the project?s objectives within the given time and budget (Iheseine,2014).Oluwasoye(2016) defined project management in his thesis as a systematic modelling of factors which include time ,cost ,resources and quality from the beginning of a project to its planning stage, execution and closing stage to meet the requirements and standards of the stake holders .Project management is an advanced practice that helps to achieve the requirements and objectives of projects within the specified time and budget. Project management is a critical factor that determine if a project will be successful or not as lots of failed projects have been associated with poor project management practices.

Project management methodology will be broken into bits to accurately extract its definition. According to Oxford dictionary, method is defined as a particular way of completing a task while methodology is defined as a set of methods and principles guiding the way a task is executed or carried out. Project management methodology is defined as a set of methods and principles guiding the management of projects from the design, planning, controlling, monitoring and completion of projects. Other definitions from several authors will be stated as the definitions varies slightly due to difference in the fields of the authors. McGrath and Stephen (2020) defined project management methodologies as an organised system of methods and approaches which are used in managing projects.

Existing project management methodologies

2.3 Examining the various issues if any

Lack of proper governmental procedures

Limited qualified project managers

2.4 The impact of various issues where necessary if any:

Lack of proper governmental procedures:

Limited qualified project managers:

2.5 Assessment of various issues where necessary if any

2.6 Mitigation strategies of various issues where necessary if any

2.6.1 Review of policies

2.6.2 The choice of appropriate design methodology

The literature reviewed precisely relates to the existing project management methodologies already in use in Nigeria. Several projects (both successful and failed projects) were examined to generate the data for this research. Deductive reasoning was used to develop specific terms relating to the topic to get books and journals relating to the project topic.

Literature Review The literature reviewed specifically targets the evaluation of actual PMM implementations. We used deductive reasoning to develop search terms to find only evaluations. We conducted searches for those terms, reviewed all the abstracts located, and then report on the contents of those found to be relevant. We used the EBSCO database as it is an aggregator which searches multiple databases from multiple sources. Our search terms were determined by the following reasoning: Any evaluation of PMMs would have to have the word methodology and may also have one of effectiveness, evaluation or success also in its title, as such an exercise could not be conducted incidental to another investigation. To restrict the search to the project management field, an additional AND criterion of ?project management? in all text was included. Searches for these terms were done in various combinations as detailed below. A search of all EBSCO aggregator databases on 22/11/2017 for methodology effectiveness in the title and ?project management? in all text found 3 items. Only one dealt with project management methodology. That was by Luczak and G?rzna (2012). It effectively summarised PRINCE2 and was concerned with adopting it rather than with evaluating any implementation of it. A similar search for effectiveness in the title and ?project management methodology? in all text also found only 3 items, one of which was Luczak and G?rzna (2012) and the other two were different to the previous search but also did not evaluate project management methodology. A similar search for evaluation in the title and ?project management methodology? in all text also found 17 items, all of which were examined and only two were relevant. One was by Luczak and G?rzna (2012) and the other was by Wells (2012) who studied practitioners with varying levels of experience, all within an IT/ IS environment. She noted there had been a ?drive from government and the public sector toward the promotion and usage of the PRINCE2 (Office of Government Commerce [OGC], 2009) PMM in recent years for the development and management of large and complex IT/IS projects? (Wells, 2012, pp. 43-44). She also documented difficulties with PMMs including ?the indifference of the methodologies to their organizational business interests and benefits beyond those of a single project; complexity in tailoring and modification; leadership and strategy; and their reliance on documentation and their inflexibility of dealing with change? (Wells, 2012, p. 44). She noted PMMs being applied ?as a fetish used with pathological rigidity for its own sake? (Wells, 2012, p. 45). Her research approach was ?phenomenological with an exploratory purpose? and also with ?an inductive approach and reasoning? and ?a multiple-case-study approach? (Wells, 2012, p. 46). Four PMM cases were examined; PRINCE2, a tailored PRINCE2 and two other methodologies. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 48 practitioners. She also noted that ?The research used an inductive approach and the interpretivism paradigm? (Wells, 2012, p. 57). A significant conclusion of this work was that ?Most project managers perceived the prime purpose of PMM to be management, control, and compliance rather than support and guidance. The investigation on MAY-AUG 2020 JOURNALMODERNPM.COM Practitioner views on project management? 191 this aspect reveals that 47.9% of project managers? claimed that using PMMs hinders their project delivery? (Wells, 2012, p. 57). A search of all EBSCO aggregator databases on 30/11/2017 for methodology success in the title and ?project management? in all text found 15 items of which 11 dealt with evaluation of methodology. Three considered project management methodology generically and are examined below. The other eight were concerned with software development; three were from 1988 to 1992, too dated to be relevant in the current IT environment, and two were effectively duplicates ? a paper and a thesis with the same title by the same author. This effectively left three IT papers which are also examined below. The most recent and most comprehensive of the three cross-industry papers were two complimentary ones by Joslin and M?ller (2015, 2016). Both papers dealt with the relationship between the use of a project management methodology (PMM) and project success, and the impact of project governance context on this relationship. The first surveyed 246 PMI members and found that ?the application of a PMM account for 22.3% of the variation in project success? (Joslin & M?ller, 2015, p. 1377). The second paper was qualitative, conducting 19 semi-structured interviews covering 19 organisations across 11 industrial sectors including IT, process and finance industries, with none in engineering infrastructure. Furthermore, all were within IT. It concluded that ?environmental factors, notably project governance, influence the use and effectiveness of a project methodology and its elements with a resulting impact on the characteristics of project success? (Joslin & M?ller, 2016, p. 364). They also noted that ?Research on project methodologies is limited, and the results are somewhat contradictory? (Joslin & M?ller, 2016, p. 368). The third non-IT focused paper was by Patah and de Carvalho (2012). It conducted a quantitative study in one multinational company with several divisions acting in different markets, where it was possible to obtain data from a large number of projects for a period of analysis. This company produced and installed a wide range of equipment and earnt 60% of its gross sales from projects. 1387 projects with complete data across Argentina, Brazil and Chile were analyzed directly from the organization?s databases, covering a three-year period between July 2006 and June 2008.The study considered budget, deadlines and financial margin and ?The results show a positive and significant influence from the implementation degree in the project success, from the schedule point of view? (Patah & de Carvalho, 2012, p. 1). This paper dealt with a subset of the elements of project management rather than with project management methodology (PMM) specifically. The three IT papers were all concerned with evaluating Agile against what could be labelled as ?waterfall? approaches. The results were somewhat inconclusive, as outlined below. Ahimbisibwe, Daellenbach, and Cavana (2017) developed and tested a contingency fit model comparing the differences between critical success factors (CSFs) for outsourced software development projects in the context of traditional plan-based and agile methodologies. This study conducted an online survey of senior software project managers and practitioners who were involved in international outsourced software development projects across the globe and received 984 valid responses. It found that various CSFs differ significantly across agile and traditional plan-based methodologies, and in different ways for various project success measures. It recommended further refinement of the instrument using different sources of data for variables and future replication using a longitudinal approach. The results ?suggest project managers should tailor PMMs according to various organizational, team, customer and project factors to reduce project failure rates? (Ahimbisibwe et al., 2017, p. Abstract). MAY-AUG 2020 JOURNALMODERNPM.COM Practitioner views on project management? 192 Tripp (2012) quantitatively evaluated the impact of various Agile methodologies on IT project success by survey of 83 Agile development teams. He noted ?that the distinctive element of agile methodologies is their strong emphasis on obtaining and processing feedback from the environment? and observed that ?the use of the practices of agile methodologies? has been observed in non-agile methodology environments?. He found that ?agile methodology use positively impacts project success, while structural complexity negatively moderates the impact of agile use? (Tripp, 2012, p. Abstract). Wright (2014) was concerned with quantifying the impact of software development methodologies on 10 measures of project success. The software development methodology used was classified as either agile, structured, or with some degree of hybridization. He found that for supplier satisfaction, agile projects exhibit slightly higher success rates than structured projects and for ?the other nine measures of success, software development methodology choice does not appear to impact the success rates. This suggests that practitioners should make software development methodology choices without concern about the impact on the ten measures of success? (Wright, 2014, p. Abstract). Joslin (2017, p. 162) said: Several decades of methodology development would imply a common understanding of the term ?methodology.? However, the opposite is true; for example, PMI (2013a) describes a methodology as a ?system of practices, techniques, and procedures, and rules,? whereas the Office of Government Commerce (OGC, 2002) describes its PRINCE2 not as a methodology, but as a method, which contains processes and not techniques? Irrespective of the type of project methodology, all methodologies comprise a heterogeneous collection of practices that vary from organization to organization (Joslin, 2017, p. 162). We note that despite this claim of PRINCE2 not to be a methodology, other academic authors also refer to it as such ? (Muller, 2017b, p. 108) refers to ?Predictive methodologies, such as PRINCE2?, Muller (2017a, p. 176) refers to ?professional standards or methodologies, such as those of PRINCE2? and Wells (2012) includes PRINCE2 in her assessment of PMMs. Joslin (2017, p. 166) also noted a case where ?a highly evolved methodology that was aligned to the needs of the different business divisions in an engineering company was replaced with a standardized methodology with catastrophic results ? project success rates dropped from 90% to 55%?. He did not name the methodology. Data on such occurrences is difficult to obtain and name for commercial and reputational reasons. In summary, the literature search has found: ? only marginal support for the effectiveness of Agile relative to traditional sequential ?waterfall? methodology, ? only one research group conducting a recent (2015/6) post-implementation assessment of generic project management methodology in relation to quantifying its effectiveness and the impact of governance upon it and ? only one not quite so recent (2012) evaluation with conclusions rather uncomplimentary to PMMs. ? Lack of an agreed definition of what a PMM is. MAY-AUG 2020 JOURNALMODERNPM.COM Practitioner views on project management? 193 The literature review found no interviews exploring the views of experienced practitioners outside IT. Wells (2012) interviewed experienced IT practitioners and noted that PMMs typically fail to accommodate their requirements. Joslin and M?ller (2016) also interviewed only experienced IT practitioners. This provides support for interviewing experienced practitioners outside IT. We also note the absence of a PMM definition and so will develop one before proceeding to generate our research questions.

* 2.7 Chapter Summary

Journal of Sustainable Business and Management Solutions in Emerging Economies 2018/23(3) Petar By: McGrath, Stephen; Whitty, Stephen Jonathan.?Journal of Modern?Project?Management.?May-Aug2020, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p188-215. 28p. DOI: 10.19255/JMPM02311.?, Database:?Business Source Complete

By: Jovanovic, Petar; Beric, Ivana.?Management: Journal of Sustainable Business &?Management?Solutions in Emerging Economies.?2018, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p3-13. 11p. DOI: 10.7595/management.fon.2018.0027.?, Database:?Business Source Complete

ENGM123

PROJECT/DISSERTATION PROPOSAL

Student Name

GBOLAHAN ABIMBOLA , OBELAWO

Student Number

209342617

E-mail address

[email?protected]

Location

University of Sunderland

Project Proposal / Date Received:

Project Planning Report / Due Date :

Final Report/Dissertation Due Date :

The primary objective of this document is help students focus on the purpose and structure of their Msc Project/Dissertation. It is quite likely and permissible that as you progress with your dissertation that several aspects of content, direction or emphasis of the dissertation will change. However, it is vitally important that you keep your academic supervisor informed of any such changes and obtain agreement. Also any such changes may require you to reconsider any or all of the content of this proposal form.

The working title for the project/ dissertation is:

An investigation into how project management methodologies increase project success rate in Nigeria.

1) Problem Definition/Research Question Briefly describe what the project sets out to deliver and achieve.

Research questions : What are the impacts of project management methodologies in increasing project success rates?

The project sets out to deliver a review of existing project management methodologies used by companies in Nigeria , and to identify the rate at which they impact different projects executed by the companies .

2) How does the project topic relate to your MSc Programme?

As a project management student , project management methodologies are vital parts of the course ,they serve as guiding principles throughout the cycle of a project .The main objective of project management is to increase project success rates and efficient management , hence the need for this project. .

3) Project scope and constraints: What will the project include and not include? What might prevent the project/ dissertation from being completed or limit the quality achieved.

This project will be limited to companies in Nigeria and existing project management methodologies already in use in various firms within Nigeria .

4) What is the Expected Output of the Project? ? What will be produced and delivered

Review of existing project management methodologies in place in Nigeria firms , the rates at which each of them impact project success rate and recommendation of more methodologies that will increase project success at a better rate .

5) Do you require any specific resources to complete your Project / Dissertation?

No

For those students working with a Client

Name of Sponsoring Organisation/Individual:

Postal address of Sponsoring Organisation/Individual:

Name of Contact (Client) at Sponsoring Organisation and contact details:

Where will the student be working?

If onsite at the company:

Are there any safety issues? This needs to be discussed between your supervisor and client

Will reasonable travelling expenses be re-imbursed?

Any other comments:

If clarification is needed please contact Dr Ken Robson, [email?protected]

1

Project Research Plan

Student Name: Gbolahan Abimbola, Obelawo

Student Number: 209342617

Programme: Project management

Terms of Reference:

TITLE: An investigation into how project management methodologies increase project success rates in Construction firms in Nigeria.

1.1 BACKGROUND

Choosing the right methodology based on the project type is highly important for any project to be successful (Anas and Anham,2021). Project management in Nigeria (a developing country) remains regressive in its structure and approach, thereby causing high rate of failure, desertion, or collapse of both government and private organisation projects despite huge financial mobilization. Previous research showed that poor project management have been identified as the major reason for the project failures in Nigeria. Due to this, this research aims to identify the project management methods used in major construction companies and how they have impacted project success rates in Nigeria (Okereke,2012).

1.2 MOTIVATION FOR THIS RESEARCH

The poor level of project management in construction firms in Nigeria despite the huge funds disbursed into the sector annually has been a major concern for me since I started working in the field, this research aims to identify the project management methodologies to use in increasing project success rate in Nigeria.

1.3 RESEARCH FOCUS

This research work aims to identify the possible causes of poor project management practices in Nigeria and to find answers to how this problem can be lessened or eliminated.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The detailed objective of this study is to identify and analyse the project management practices used in construction firms in Nigeria.

Other objectives are:

?To analyse different construction projects executed in different states in Nigeria by both private and government construction firms.

?To identify the poor project management practices leading to project failure.

?To outline the relevance of hiring project managers in construction firms in Nigeria and the importance of using the right practices for their projects. (As most firms use either architects or engineers that have no knowledge of project management to serve as project managers)

? To produce and submit a complete dissertation by April.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This research work aims to provide answers to the following:

? What are the impacts of project management methodologies in increasing project success rates in Nigeria?

? What are the project management methodologies used in Nigeria?

? Which project management practice identified increases project success rate?

? How does project management methodologies increase project success rate in Nigeria?

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The aim of the research is to identify the project management methodologies that work best in successfully executing projects in Nigeria and to identify some wrong practices that led to some project failures. Both successful and failed projects will be used as case study to identify the method used in managing the projects and to recommend methods that could have made the projects better. The output of this research will be recommendation of project management methodologies derived from the examined successful projects from different firms across Nigeria. These firms will be able to use this research as a basis of managing future projects.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research will be limited to construction projects in Nigeria between 2010 and 2022 which will guide data collection and analysis, only main government owned firms will be used as case study as most private firms hardly use the services of a project manager. Both successful and failed projects will be identified to compare and identify the project management approach used during the planning and execution of the projects.

1.8 RESEARCH METHOD AND DESIGN

This research used both qualitative and quantitative research method. These methods were used to meet the objective of this research which is to identify and analyse the project management methodologies used in increasing project success rate in Nigeria. To answer the research questions, the qualitative method was discovered appropriate because it allows the rese to investigate the subject matter objectively.

The following were techniques were used for data collection:

?Primary Data: This will be collected through questionnaires sent to the firms to be used as case study.

?Secondary Data: This will be gotten from appropriate project management journals, books, and articles. The internet is a sustainable home of secondary data.

?Data Analysis: Data collected from the questionnaires will be useful in answering the research questions and how it will be analysed deductively using e.g tables, charts and so on.

Details on the research methodology and design of this research will be covered in Chapter Three.

1.9 DISSERTATION OUTLINE

This research will have the following chapters:

?Chapter One: This chapter covers the introduction of this research, and it covers the reason for the research, what it aims to achieve and so on.

?Chapter Two: The second chapter is the literature review chapter. This chapter covers the basis of this research as it reviewed present and appropriate literature to find the existing work on project management methodologies in Nigeria and gaps that need to be explored and further researched upon.

?Chapter Three: This chapter covers a comprehensive summary of the methodology used for this study.

?Chapter Four: This is the data analysis chapter of this work. The chapter analyses the data gotten from both the primary and secondary sources.

?Chapter Five: This chapter covers the review of the data analysed from chapter 4.

?Chapter Six: This chapter covers detailed recommendations on how to control the problems of poor project management in Nigeria and to recommend practices to increase project success rate.

?Chapter Seven: This chapter is to evaluate the entire project work against the research objectives.

?Chapter Eight: This part which is the closing chapter covers the personal lessons learnt during the dissertation.

Project Schedule and Plan:

The project is scheduled to last for 16 weeks (10th of January to 25th of April 2022). The milestones are Project planning report, Literature review, Data collection and Analysis, writing dissertation, Recommendation, proof-reading and submission of dissertation. There are 11 supervisory meeting planned throughout the dissertation cycle.

References

Okereke, O.C. (2012). Resolving the seemingly intractable Nigerian national infrastructural deficiencies.?PM World Today?14(2) pp. 1?13.

Anas Najdawi and Anham Shaheen (2021). Which Project Management Methodology is better for AI-Transformation and Innovation Projects? Pg 3-5.

SEPLI appraisal

Student Name: Gbolahan Abimbola, Obelawo

Course: M.Sc., Project Management

Title of project: An investigation into how project management methodologies increase project success rates in Nigeria.

Client: Lee Fakino Construction firm

Location of client: Abuja, Lagos, and Oyo state Nigeria.

DESCRIPTION

EVALUATION OF IMPACT RISK

SOCIAL ISSUES

The project contains delicate information about why some major projects failed, it may lead to conflicts (another court case) if the client know that the project failure could have been avoided.

This issue has a high impact. Kee

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