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Write a 7?9 page evaluation of the content attached with respect to diversity and traditional and contemporary learning theory.

  1. Define each of the following issues or topics within the content, explain what evidence you looked for to identify the issue or topic, and ?????explain how you would incorporate each if the issue or topic is not present.?
  • Analyze how issues of culture or diversity are represented in the week’s content and, if not represented, how they could be included.
  • Analyze how diverse learning styles are represented in the content and, if not represented, how they could be included.
  • Analyze how andragogy, self-directed learning, transformative learning, experiential learning, and embodied learning are represented in the week’s content or would work if applied.
  • Analyze how behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism are represented in the content or would work if applied.

(2)Apply backward design to the attached content, and present any revisions and recommendations you would make to bring the content into line with that framework, defending your recommendations.

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Final Course Week Analysis

Learner?s Name

Capella University

EDD8500: Adult Learning Theory and Professional Practice

Instructor Name

April 1, 2021

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Final Course Week Analysis

This paper contains an analysis of the learning activities in Week 2 of this course. The

activities of the week are summarized. The representation of issues of culture and diversity and

the effectiveness of the learning styles used in the week are analyzed. The application of the

principles of andragogy, self-directed learning, transformative learning, experiential learning,

and embodied learning in the week is examined. The representation of behaviorism, cognitivism,

and constructivism in the week is also analyzed.

Week 2 Learning Module

Week 2 begins with a hook statement designed to present a problem in a manner that

encourages the learner to delve into the theoretical foundations of adult learning. The

introduction sets the learner up to explore the motivations for adult learning. In Week 2, the

learner analyzes different types of learning styles and the models of transfer in the movie The

Help. In the first learning activity, the learner is instructed to explore traditional learning

theories, adult learning theories, changes that occur in the brain during the process of learning,

and the methods to optimize learning processes using what has been learned.

The course content for the week includes an interactive learning module that learners can

use to identify the traditional style of learning that aligns most closely with their beliefs. The

week?s assignment requires learners to explore their personal orientations toward teaching and

learning. To arrive at their preferred orientation, a learner examines traditional learning theories

and identifies the learning tasks associated with each of these theories. After the learning

activities in Week 2 are analyzed, the following reasoning will be used to test the effectiveness

of the course.

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Representation of Culture and Diversity

A distinct marker of adult education is an intentional focus on the diverse experiences

learners bring to the classroom. Learning is more effective when a learner can use their prior

experiences to create connections with new knowledge or new skills. This is especially

noticeable in adult education where the greater variety and depth of experiences that many adults

have had increase the number of opportunities for such connections to occur (Brookfield, 2013).

Experience is the basis for genuine education. Vygotsky (1978) highlighted the very

important role of the sociocultural context within which people construct meaning from

experience. He indicated that this is a social process mediated by a culture?s symbols and

language. A process that is central to self-directed learning, experiential learning,

transformational learning, and reflective practice is the social construction of knowledge (as

cited in Merriam & Bierema, 2014). Adult learning always takes place within a socially

constructed environment, and learners have socially constructed identities that are continuously

developing. The activities and assignments in Week 2 encourage the learner to critically examine

the sociocultural context in which the learning takes place in the movie.

It is important to critically reflect on culture to make quality adult learning possible.

Ignoring the impact of culture on instruction forces learners who are not part of the dominant

culture to either resist it and stand out or embrace it and be erased, which is antithetical to what

the field of adult education promotes (Biniecki & Kang, 2015). The instructions for the

discussion activity in Week 2 prompt the learner to examine the movie for when the learning

occurred, the situations in which the learning occurred, the types of learning that occurred, and

whether the learning was intentional. The learner is encouraged to think beyond nationality or

race when identifying and analyzing the cultures represented in the movie. The learner is

instructed to analyze the characters? motivations to learn in each situation. By providing

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opportunities for a learner to reflect on the sociocultural contexts in which learning occurs, and

examine the impact of culture on learning, Week 2 represents issues of culture and diversity in

the course.

Representation of Diverse Learning Styles

Learning is a transformational experience that is achieved when learners utilize prior

skills and knowledge in the process of gaining a new understanding of concepts and ideas.

Therefore, constant assessment of learners? learning preferences is critical to ensuring that all

learners can master the necessary skills at the same pace. This can be accomplished by

approaching learning as a holistic and integrative process that is careful in including aspects of

all learning styles (Celli & Young, 2017). People use learning to adapt to everyday conditions in

life or at work. Their learning styles change as life progresses, for example, learning styles in

elementary school differ from those of middle school and the same is true of the differences in

learning styles in middle school and high school. This change in learning styles continues to

occur through college and during adulthood. Individuals also change their learning styles in

unique ways. Some people experience rapid and multiple changes in learning styles, while others

hardly change their learning style. A learning style is the way in which a learner identifies,

interacts with, and reacts or responds to a learning situation (Ibrahim & Hussein, 2015).

In Week 2, learners use visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles. While watching

the movie The Help and while reading the prescribed course material, writing posts and

assignments, and understanding the course content for the week, learners employ the visual,

auditory, and read/write learning styles. Visual learners perceive in pictures and learn well with

visual pictures. While watching the movie, learners rely on the character?s nonverbal signals

such as body language to gain a deeper understanding of their motivations. The auditory learning

style refers to the way in which learners unravel information by means of pitch, tone,

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modulation, emphasis, and cadence of speech (Ibrahim & Hussein, 2015). When watching the

movie, learners are instructed to pay attention to the types of learning that took place and if that

learning was intentional. Analyzing the nonverbal aspects of the movie would provide the learner

with clues about the characters? motivations to learn and how that learning was internalized and

demonstrated later in the story.

The kinesthetic learning style is characterized by interaction with others and the physical

world. Kinesthetic learning can help the learner focus better on the subject being learned by

increasing engagement with others (Ibrahim & Hussein, 2015). In Week 2, this is demonstrated

in a discussion activity in which a learner writes a post about the types of learning and models of

transfer they noted in the movie and responds to a post by a peer learner.

Application of Learning Theories

Knowles (1984) introduced the concept of andragogy by systematically laying out what

made child learners different from adult learners. He created the andragogical model of adult

learning based on six key assumptions (as cited in Merriam & Bierema, 2014). The first

assumption is that as a person matures, they move from being a dependent personality toward

being more self-directed. Self-directed learning was described by Knowles (1975) as a process

?in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their

learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for

learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating those

learning outcomes? (p. 18, as cited in Merriam & Bierema, 2014). The coursework of Week 2 is

structured in a manner that helps adults perform tasks that aid in learning. The Week 2 course

starts with a to-do list that works as a general outline of what a learner needs to do to complete

the activities for the week. The activities contain instructions and guidelines that the learner can

use to direct their own learning. The instructions also explain why the learner needs to complete

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the activity. Every activity builds toward the assignment at the end of the week, and the learner

also has access to the criteria on which the assignment will be graded. The learning process that

the learner goes through in Week 2 is structured to enable a self-directed learner.

The second assumption of the andragogical model is that an adult accumulates a growing

reservoir of experience over time, which can be used as a rich resource for learning. This

relationship between experience and learning is especially prominent in adulthood when daily

life is comprised of a series of activities in private and in public (Merriam & Bierema, 2014). At

the heart of adult learning is engaging in, reflecting upon, and making meaning of our

experiences. By embedding instruction in the immediate circumstances of an adult?s life, theory

becomes very practical and learning highly relevant. In Week 2, learners watch a movie in which

characters engage in informal learning and draw on their life experiences to motivate themselves.

The interactive learning module in Week 2 encourages the learner to reflect on their personal

approach to learning, which they have developed based on their life experiences and their

motivation to learn. Discussions that the learner has with peers about their conclusions enrich the

learning experience. This process demonstrates experiential learning, which along with reflective

learning is an iterative process. The learning continues to build and develop with additional

reflection and experience (Merriam & Bierema, 2014).

The third assumption is that the developmental tasks of an adult?s social role are closely

related to the person?s readiness to learn. Adults are engaged in multiple social roles such as

employee, spouse, and parent. Each role has its own demands, which change over time. These

changing demands serve to motivate adults to learn to be more effective in their social roles

(Merriam & Bierema, 2014). Part of the analysis of the movie during Week 2 involves

examining the teaching and learning roles portrayed by the characters. The analysis contributes

to the learner?s reservoir of experience that they can later draw on as adult educators. The

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analysis also causes the learner to reflect on their past understanding of learning to transform

their perception of it as they progress through the course. The coursework in Week 2 encourages

transformative learning as learners reflect, discuss, and engage in activities that lead to a change

in their perception of adult learning.

The fourth assumption is that there is a change in people?s perspective of time as they

mature. A young learner engages in learning with the intent of applying the learned skills and

knowledge in the distant future, whereas an adult learner needs to apply new skills and

knowledge immediately. An adult is more problem centered than subject centered in their

approach to learning (Merriam & Bierema, 2014). Week 2 begins with a problem to solve?

helping a friend who is trying to improve her knowledge base on learning theory to decide if a

formal or informal learning environment would be better for her. Going through the tasks and

assignments of Week 2 helps the learner solve this problem. It also changes the learner?s

perspective on learning theory through a deeper understanding of the subject as well as their own

motivations for learning.

The fifth assumption is that adults are mostly self-driven to learn. The most powerful

motivators for adults to learn are internal as opposed to external. Increasing one?s job

satisfaction, improving one?s self-perception, improving one?s quality of life, and personal

fulfillment can motivate adults to learn more than they may be required to get through the day-

to-day (Merriam & Bierema, 2014). In Week 2, the learners are required to read through,

analyze, and critically examine the course content and submit an assignment about a given topic.

This method not only tests self-directed learning but also causes a change in the way the learners

perceive themselves and the world around them. This change highlights the inclusion of

transformative learning in the week.

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The sixth assumption is that adults need to clearly understand why they need to learn

something and how they can apply what is learned to their immediate situation. This is related to

the assumption that adult learners are intrinsically motivated since such a learner is more

strongly motivated to learn if it is clear to them beforehand why they need to learn something.

(Merriam & Bierema, 2014). After presenting a problem to solve in Week 2, each step to solve

the problem is clearly laid out along with how the new knowledge will help the learner achieve

the goal of better understanding their personal orientation toward teaching and learning. As the

learner progresses through Week 2, which incorporates the principles of andragogy, and

undergoes experiential and transformative learning, they must embody the knowledge they gain

to successfully determine their orientation toward teaching and learning. Embodied knowledge is

acquired through active and passive learning over a period and tempered through experience. It

manifests in the adult learner?s intuitions about the learning approach that suits them better

(Merriam & Bierema, 2014).

Application of Traditional Learning Theories

Knowles et al. (1984, as cited in Shrivastava & Shrivastava, 2017) defined the adult

learning principles that continue to be the skeleton to design learning modules for adults. In other

words, it is important to account for the fact that adults are different from each other and the

ways in which they learn may be quite different. Learner attributes such as learning styles, the

stage of development the learner is at, the learner?s motivations, and possible barriers to learning

must be kept in mind while designing a learning experience.

In Week 2, the learners show changes in perception, which could eventually lead to

changes in their behavioral aspects. The week effectively incorporates feedback, learning

objectives, and behavior modification in its structured learning activities. The learner may

exhibit a changed pattern of behavior while completing the assignments or while making real-

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time decisions about their own learning journey based on the knowledge they gained from the

course. The knowledge the learner gains by completing the reading activities on adult learning

theories and critical thinking may lead to a change in how they approach the way they learn, as

well as how they teach adults in the future. In facilitating behavioral changes in learners, the

application of behavioral learning theory is represented in the learning activities of Week 2 of the

course.

The assignment in the course can only be completed effectively if the learners use critical

thinking in their analysis to understand the course content. The application of cognitivism in the

module is demonstrated in the instructions, which encourage the learner to focus more on the

internal processes and connections that take place during learning (Merriam & Bierema, 2014).

The assignment also provides learners with an opportunity to construct their own understanding

of the topic by combining the knowledge gained over the course and their personal experiences.

The module uses several constructivist strategies such as encouraging dialogue with peers

through the discussion post activity and building on what the learners already know about a

concept through the reading activity before presenting their own ideas and theories. This

represents the application of constructivism in the course.

Conclusion

The goal of learning activities designed for Week 2 is to enable the learner to gain a

better understanding of their personal orientations toward teaching and learning. To achieve the

goal, the learner must explore traditional learning theories, adult learning theories, and the

changes that occur in the brain during the process of learning. They must use this information to

augment their own process of learning. This paper contains a look at the representation of culture

and diversity in the week and how it facilitates experiential and transformative learning. It also

contains an exploration of the effectiveness of learning styles. Finally, the paper contains an

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analysis of the week?s application of the principles of andragogy and behaviorism, cognitivism,

and constructivism in its activities. Week 2 is found to adhere to all these principles effectively.

The journey that the learner goes through in the course of Week 2 is a self-directed experience

that transforms their perception of adult learning and the knowledge they embody will change

the way they behave as educators.

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References

Biniecki, S. Y., & Kang, H. (2015). Examining adult learning through the lens of culture: A U.S.

perspective. Rocznik Andragogiczny, 21, 133?142. https://doi.org/10.12775/ra.2014.009

Brookfield, S. D. (2013). Powerful techniques for teaching adults (1st ed.). Jossey-Bass.

Celli, L. M., & Young, N. D. (2017). Contemporary pedagogy for the adult learning. PUPIL:

International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning, 1(1), 86?96.

https://doi.org/10.20319/pijtel.2017.11.8696

Ibrahim, R. H., & Hussein, D. A. (2015). Assessment of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning

style among undergraduate nursing students. International Journal of Advanced Nursing

Studies, 5(1), 1?4. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijans.v5i1.5124

Merriam, S. B., & Bierema, L. L. (2014). Adult learning: Linking theory and practice. Jossey-

Bass

Shrivastava, S. R., Shrivastava P. S. (2017). Employing adult learning theories in designing a

module. Research and Development in Medical Education, 6(2) 64?65.

https://doi.org/10.15171/rdme.2017.014

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Week 7

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? Mindfulness in Adult Learning

As you review the carefully prepared document Sara handed you this morning, you find yourself impressed with the ways she integrated contemporary learning theories, adult development theories, and neuroplasticity. She expects resistance to her recommended changes in the professional development program, so she asked you to help her develop an elevator speech that she can use to bolster support for her recommendations. What would you consider the most important points for her to make?

Week 7 is the third of a three-week series?dealing with?human development, adult learning, and the human brain. This week focuses on ways to optimize learning for adults.

? Assignment Overview

In this week’s assignment, you will demonstrate meta-understanding of learning theories with regard to adult biopsychosocial development and growth in designing a learning experience for adults.

? What You Need to Know

Building on what you learned in previous weeks, you can see that developing a learning activity requires greater attention to the interrelatedness of each traditional component. A writing assignment for an adult should not look the same as a writing assignment for a non-adult learner. The elements on which instructions focus will differ. The related grading rubric will differ, as will the feedback provided from that rubric.

Mindfulness

In these chapters, you see use of previously learned material to the application of mindfulness in learning and how to apply mindfulness to change. Cases are examined for real-world relevance.

? Bresciani Ludvik, M. J. (Ed.). (2016).?

The neuroscience of learning and development: Enhancing creativity, compassion, critical thinking, and peace in higher education


.?Stylus Publishing.

1. Chapter 11, ?Mindfulness at Work in Higher Education Leadership: From Theory to Practice Within the Classroom and Across the University,? pages 266?288.

1. Chapter 12, ?A Mindful Approach to Navigating Strategic Change,? pages 289?308.

1. Afterword,?”Adoption, Adaptation, and Transformation,? pages 309?334.

Applying the Double-Loop Reflection Process

Learning Theories

I would use my knowledge of the double loop reflection process and aging cognition to design learning activities of my class that would facilitate maximum learning for every student. Double loop learning puts emphasis on what it takes for people and systems to make important changes. This learning theory focuses on keeping a behavioral system that operates within a field of constancy and learning that changes what the system seeks to keep constant or to achieve. The double loop reflection process focuses on learning from experience (Greenwood, 2018). The double loop reflection process allows individuals to consider new experiences and evidence, and incorporate them in their decisions about complex situations and issues.

Business and Marketing Course

A research indicated that older adults learn new information at a slower rate when compared to younger adults. This is attributed to a decline in fluid intelligence which is caused by their aging cognition. Therefore while designing the learning activities for the Business & Marketing course, I would have to consider reducing the amount of new information being taught and focusing on the already existing knowledge that the students might have (Bresciani, 2016). The new course would have to be delivered at a slower rate, as compared to when it is delivered to younger adults. This is because when rushing an older adult to learn and demonstrate a new skill may lead to frustration, and unwillingness to perform due to shame and fear of failure.

In the Business & Marketing course, I would use a template to demonstrate how to draft effective marketing plans. Since the students obviously have a background in business and marketing, the information presented would not be new to them (Greenwood, 2018). Since the aim of the course it to achieve some change in how to draft business and marketing plans, I would initially show them the common marketing plan, then I would compare it with the effective and most recent marketing plan. The aim of the course is to demonstrate to the students how the competing businesses continuously try new approaches to achieve increased sales and customer retention and how changing a business and marketing plan, would help their target companies achieve the same.

As previously mentioned adult education needs to be based on existing knowledge while young education does not need existing knowledge since most young people are flexible at learning new concepts. For the business and marketing course, the double loop reflection process would be used to make the adult learners reconsider what they have previously learned, allowing them to change their perceptions willingly (Bresciani, 2016). This process starts with a restatement of what the older adults know, and then an alternating information is presented to them, making them question what they previously believed in.

Conclusion

The double reflection learning process allows students to reconsider what they have previously learned to accommodate new and alternating information. The double reflection learning process allows learners to reconsider what they have learned, allowing them to learn new concepts. For the business and marketing course, learners may be presented with the conventional information which is then contrasted with new information. This allows learners to make a comparison between the two sets of information, and determine whether they would change their perception. The double reflection learning process is efficient for the elderly learners because their cognitive functioning has slowed down and it therefore becomes hard for them to learn new thing. Therefore, to ensure that this population learns new thing, it is important to compare the two concepts to determine whether to change their points of view. The double reflection learning process does allow learners to accept underlying policies and procedures but questions the entire structure of approaching difficult situations and concepts.

References

Bresciani, M. J. (Ed.). (2016). The neuroscience of learning and development: Enhancing creativity, compassion, critical thinking, and peace in higher education. Stylus Publishing.

Greenwood, J. (2018). The role of reflection in single and double loop learning.?Journal of advanced nursing,?27(5), 1048-1053.

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