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Activity 10

Do an Internet search for the Keirsey Temperament Sorter Questionnaire and find a site that appears to have a reputable self-assessment questionnaire. Respond to the questionnaire to identify your temperament type. Read supportive documents associated with your type. What does this material suggest are the kinds of projects that would best suit you? What does it suggest your strengths and weaknesses are as a project manager? How can you compensate for your weaknesses??

Chapter Ten

Being an Effective Project Manager

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Where We Are Now

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Project Management 6e.

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Learning Objectives

Understand the difference between leading and managing a project

Understand the need to manage project stakeholders

Identify and apply different ?influence currencies? to build positive relations with others

Create a stakeholder map and develop strategies for managing project dependencies

Understand the need for a highly interactive management style on projects

More effectively manage project expectations

Develop strategies for managing upward relations

Understand the importance of building trust and acting in an ethical manner while working on a project

Identify the qualities of an effective project manager

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Copyright ? 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter Outline

10.1 Managing versus Leading a Project

10.2 Managing Project Stakeholders

10.3 Influence as Exchange

10.4 Social Network Building

10.5 Ethics and Project Management

10.6 Building Trust: The Key to Exercising

Influence

10.7 Qualities of an Effective Project Manager

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Managing versus Leading a Project

Managing?coping with complexity

Formulate plans and objectives

Monitor results

Take corrective action

Expedite activities

Solve technical problems

Serve as peacemaker

Make tradeoffs among time, costs, and project scope

Leading?coping with change

Recognize the need to change to keep the project on track

Initiate change

Provide direction and motivation

Innovate and adapt as necessary

Integrate assigned resources

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Managing Project Stakeholders

Project Management Maxims:

You can?t do it all and get it all done.

Projects usually involve a vast web of relationships.

Hands-on work is not the same as leading.

More pressure and more involvement can reduce
your effectiveness as a leader.

What?s important to you likely isn?t as important
to someone else.

Different groups have different stakes (responsibilities, agendas, and priorities) in the outcome of a project.

Remember: project management is tough, exciting, and rewarding?endeavor to persevere.

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Network of Stakeholders

FIGURE 10.1

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Project Management 6e.

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Influence as Exchange

The Law of Reciprocity

One good deed deserves another, and likewise, one bad deed deserves another.

Quid pro Quo

Mutual exchanges of resources and services
(?back-scratching?) build relationships.

Influence ?Currencies? (Cohen and Bradford)

Cooperative relationships are built on the exchange
of organizational ?currencies? (favors).

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Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies

TABLE 10.1

Task-related currencies

Resources Lending or giving money, budget increases, personnel, etc.

Assistance Helping with existing projects or undertaking unwanted tasks.

Cooperation Giving task support, providing quicker response time, or aiding implementation.

Information Providing organizational as well as technical knowledge.

Position-related currencies

Advancement Giving a task or assignment that can result in promotion.

Recognition Acknowledging effort, accomplishments, or abilities.

Visibility Providing a chance to be known by higher-ups or significant others in the organization.

Network/ Providing opportunities for linking with others.
contacts

Source: Adapted from A. R. Cohen and David L. Bradford, Influence without Authority (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990). Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Organizational Currencies (cont?d)

TABLE 10.1 (cont?d)

Inspiration-related currencies

Vision Being involved in a task that has larger significance for the unit, organization, customer, or society.

Excellence Having a chance to do important things really well.

Ethical correctness Doing what is ?right? by a higher standard than efficiency.

Relationship-related currencies

Acceptance Providing closeness and friendship.

Personal support Giving personal and emotional backing.

Understanding Listening to others? concerns and issues.

Personal-related currencies

Challenge/learning Sharing tasks that increase skills and abilities.

Ownership/involvement Letting others have ownership and influence.

Gratitude Expressing appreciation.

Source: Adapted from A. R. Cohen and David L. Bradford, Influence without Authority (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990). Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Social Network Building

Mapping Stakeholder Dependencies

Project team perspective:

Whose cooperation will we need?

Whose agreement or approval will we need?

Whose opposition would keep us from accomplishing the project?

Stakeholders? perspective:

What differences exist between the team and those on whom the team will depend?

How do the stakeholders view the project?

What is the status of our relationships with the stakeholders?

What sources of influence does the team have relative
to the stakeholders?

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Stakeholder Map for Financial Software Installation Project

FIGURE 10.2

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Management by Wandering Around

Management by Wandering Around (MBWA)

Involves managers spending the majority of their time in face-to-face interactions with employees building cooperative relationships.

Characteristics of Effective Project Managers

Initiate contact with key stakeholders

Anticipate potential problems

Provide encouragement

Reinforce the objectives and vision of the project

Intervene to resolve conflicts and prevent stalemates

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Managing Upward Relations

Project Success = Top Management Support

Appropriate budget

Responsiveness to unexpected needs

A clear signal to the organization of the importance of cooperation

Motivating the Project Team

Influence top management in favor of the team:

Rescind unreasonable demands

Provide additional resources

Recognize the accomplishments of team members

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The Significance of a Project Sponsor

FIGURE 10.3

Upper management

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Leading by Example

FIGURE 10.4

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Ethics and Project Management

Ethical Dilemmas

Situations where it is difficult to determine whether conduct is right or wrong:

Padding of cost and time estimations

Exaggerating pay-offs of project proposals

Falsely assuring customers that everything is on track

Being pressured to alter status reports

Falsifying cost accounts

Compromising safety standards to accelerate progress

Approving shoddy work

Code of conduct

Professional standards and personal integrity

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Building Trust: The Key to Exercising Influence

Trust

An elusive concept

See it as a function of character and competence

Character focuses on personal motives.

Competence focuses on skills necessary to realize motives.

The core of highly effective people is a character ethic (Stephen Covey in Seven Habits of Highly Effective People).

Consistency?more predictable

Openness?more receptive to others

A sense of purpose?what is best for the organization and the project

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Contradictions of Project Management

Innovate and maintain stability

See the big picture while getting your hands dirty

Encourage individuals but stress the team

Hands-off/Hands-on

Flexible but firm

Team versus organizational loyalties

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Traits of an Effective Project Manager

Systems thinker

Personal integrity

Proactive

High emotional intelligence (EQ)

General business perspective

Effective time management

Skillful politician

Optimist

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Suggestions for Project Managers

Build relationships before you need them.

Trust is sustained through frequent
face-to-face contact.

Realize that ?what goes around comes around.?

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Key Terms

Emotional intelligence (EQ)

Inspiration-related currencies

Law of reciprocity

Leading by example

Management by wandering around (MBWA)

Personal-related currencies

Position-related currencies

Proactive

Relationship-related currencies

Social network building

Stakeholder

Systems thinking

Task-related currencies

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