Marx and Arendt could not be further apart on the question of freedom?s relationship to economics. Marx sees the two as integrally linked, while Arendt thinks freedom occurs only in a realm transcendent of economics. Compare and contrast Marx?s and Arendt?s conceptions of freedom?s relationship to economics. Whose conception is more convincing, and why??
No longer than five (5) double-spaced pages
Read the following before answering:?
1. Karl Marx, Selected Writings, ed. Lawrence H. Simon (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1994)?
Karl Marx, ?Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844? (pp. 54-55, 58-79)?
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist ?Manifesto (1848) (pp. 157-176, plus last four paragraphs on p. 186)?
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The German ?Ideology (1845-46), (Middle paragraph on p. 119, third paragraph on p. 129 through second paragraph on p. 131)
2. Hannah Arendt, On Revolution (1963), Introduction and Chapter 1, 2 ?
3. Hannah Arendt, ?What is Freedom?? (1961)* ?
4. Karl Marx, Fragment on association from ?Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844?*?
Karl Marx, Fragment on association from ?Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of
1844,? translated by Martin Mulligan.
?When communist artisans associate with one another, theory, propaganda, etc., is their first end.
But at the same time, as a result of this association, they acquire a new need ? the need for
society ? and what appears as a means becomes an end. In this practical process the most
splendid results are to be observed whenever French socialist workers are seen together. Such
things as smoking, drinking, eating, etc., are no longer means of contact or means that bring
them together. Association, society and conversation, which again has association as its end, are
enough for them; the brotherhood of man is no mere phrase with them, but a fact of life, and the
nobility of man shines upon us from their work-hardened bodies.?
Between Past and Future
EIGHT EXERCISES IN
Introduction by JEROME KOHN
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Expanded volume published in a Viking Compass edition 1968
Published in Penguin Books 1977
This edition with an introduction by Jerome Kohn published 2006
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 l. I
Copyright ? Hannah Arendt, 1951, 1956, 1957,1958, 1960, 1961, 1963. 1967, 1968
Introduction copyright ? Jerome Kohn, 2006
Ali rights reserved
The selections in this book are revised and expanded versions of es..ys first published in magaztlles, some
under different titles. “Tradition and the Modern Age,’ a portion of “The Concept of History: Ancient and
Modern,’ and “The Crisis in Education” appeared in The Parti… ” Review; a portion of “The Concept of
HIStory: Ancient and Modern” and a portion of “What is Authority?” in The Review of Politics; “What is
Freedom?” in Chicago Review; a portion of “The Crisis in Culture: Its Social and Irs Political Significance”
in Daedalus (Copyright e 1960 by by American Academy of Arts and Sciences); “Truth and Politics” in
The New Yorker; and “The Conquest of Space and the StatUre of Man” in American Scholar.
A portion of “What is Authority?” was first published in Nomo. I: Authority, edited by Carl J. Friedrkh
for the American Society of Political and Legal Philosophy, copyright e 19 S8 by the President and FeUows
of Harvard Coliege, pubhshed by The Liberal Arts Press, a division of The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.
“The Crisis in Education” was translated from the German by Denver Lindley.
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<:?-‘:T-;:.::;;~r-,;; :;; -.”,:;-,i: :-,-_-=~_,~ ::_,;~~,,;:~:;:;;;~_~;..t;..’~_”i);>,,~'”?”__iii~__” ________________..’11”?
Introduction by JEROME KOHN Vll
BETWEEN PAST AND FUTURE
Preface: The Gap Between Past and Future 3
I. TRADITION AND THE MODERN AGE 17
2. THE CONCEPT OF HISTORY: ANCIENT
AND MODERN 41
3. WHAT IS AUTHORITY? 91
4. WHAT IS FREEDOM? 142
5. THE CRISIS IN EDUCATION 170
6. THE CRISIS IN CULTURE: ITS SOCIAL
AND ITS POLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE 194
7. TRUTH AND POLITICS 223
8. THE CONQUEST OF SPACE AND THE
STATURE OF MAN 260
WHAT IS FREEDOM?
To raise the question, what is freedom? seems to be a hopeless
enterprise. It is as though age-old contradictions and antino?
mies were lying in wait to force the mind into dilemmas of log?
ical impossibility so that, depending which horn of the dilemma
you are holding on to, it becomes as impossible to conceive of
freedom or its opposite as it is to realize the notion of a square
circle. In its simplest form, the difficulty may be summed up as
the contradiction between our consciousness and conscience,
telling us that we are free and hence responsible, and our every?
day experience in the outer world, in which we orient ourselves
according to the principle of causality. In all practical and espe?
cially in political matters we hold human freedom to be a self?
evident truth, and it is upon this axiomatic assumption that
laws are laid down in human communities, that decisions are
taken, that judgments are passed. In all fields of scientific and
theoretical endeavor, on the contrary, we proceed according to
the no less self-evident truth of nihil ex nihilo, of nihil sine
causa, that is, on the assumption that even “our own lives are,
in the last analysis, subject to causation” and that if there
should be an ultimately free ego in ourselves, it certainly never
makes its unequivocal appearance in the phenomenal world,
and therefore can never become the subject of theoretical ascer?
tainment. Hence freedom turns out to be a mirage the moment
psychology looks into what is supposedly its innermost do?
main; for “the part which force plays in nature, as the cause of
motion, has its counterpart in the mental sphere in motive as
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