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Is the Internet Democratizing?

DISCUSSION ONE

Remember to use your own words, using your best writing skills, cite your sources, and provide a reference list

Anderson and Rainie (2020) surveyed scholars about the impact of technology on democracy. Identify at least 3 concerns expressed by these experts regarding the future of democracy in a digital world. For each concern, include a quote from an expert that you found to be important or insightful. Explain why each quote resonated with you.

Identify at least 3 possible hopes or solutions that counteract concerns about technology?s impact on democracy. For each hope or solution, include a quote from an expert that you found to be important or insightful. Explain why each quote resonated with you.

Remember to use your own words, using your best writing skills, cite your sources, and provide a reference list.

Future trends and the impact of social media

After reviewing all of the learning resources for the week, respond to the following items:

? Integrating and citing at least 3 resources from this week, what are some trends that we are likely to see in the future that will partner technology and government/policy?

? Based on what you learned from this week’s resources, what impact has social media had on government, politics, and activism? Where has social media had a positive impact? Where has it had a negative impact??

Remember to use your own words and your best writing skills. You may include external sources in addition to the Week 5 resources, but be sure to cite your sources, and provide a corresponding reference list.

1. https://medicalfuturist.com/20-potential-technological-advances-in-the-future-of-medicine-part-i/

2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXPIu8LazqI

3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j5ASmVnATc0

4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qnSpOcgKbQo

5. https://www.livescience.com/64018-longevity-genetic-questioned.html

6. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/30240/30240-h/30240-h.htm

7. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323343

8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p14AUxXlE-w

9. https://www.ted.com/talks/susan_solomon_the_promise_of_research_with_stem_cells

10. https://www.ted.com/talks/chuck_murry_can_we_regenerate_heart_muscle_with_stem_cells

11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822264/

12.

Health and Technology ? Applications

BEHS 103: Technology in Contemporary Society

Week 6

Credit: Katherine Im (2021, July)

1

Public Health Movement

Water sanitation

1854- Cholera was found to be caused by contaminated water supply

Late 1800?s – Water treatment, separation of water and sewer lines

1970 ? EPA formed; 1st time clean water standards applied at the federal level

Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email?protected]/4515205247/

3

Immunizations

Before 1900, communicable diseases killed a significant proportion of the population

CDC now recommends 16 childhood vaccinations

Infant mortality declined significantly

http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/vaccines/multiplevaccines.html

Image Source: http://vaccineresistancemovement.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Universal-Flu-Vaccine1.jpg

4

Motor vehicle safety

6x as many drivers today as in 1925

11x as many cars (215 million)

Despite more drivers and vehicles, 90% decrease in annual death rate since 1925

Why?

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4818a1.htm

Image source: https://www.google.com/search?q=click+it+or+ticket&hl=en&qscrl=1&rlz=1T4AURU_enUS502US502&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=HO_3UcXaBLOx4AP_nYGwCg&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1440&bih=698#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=exCiNo6UAu1UXM%3A%3BpAvQMTBs34ea0M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.pinevillepd.com%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2013%252F05%252FCIOT_daynight.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.pinevillepd.com%252Fclick-it-or-ticket%252F%3B900%3B900

5

Better technology

In our vehicles:

head rests, energy-absorbing steering wheels, shatter-resistant windshields, safety belts, car seats

On the road:

breakaway sign and utility poles, improved lighting, barriers separating oncoming traffic, guardrails

In our laws:

enforcement of traffic safety laws reinforced by public education

What safety features are missing in this 1964 vehicle?

7

Food Safety

Pasteurization and sanitation

Regulation of pesticides and processing procedures

Nutritional supplements for improved health

Pellagra ? niacin deficiency

Four Ds: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death

Eliminated by adding niacin to flour

http://www.meijer.com/assets/product_images/styles/xlarge/1001029_041250946823_A_400.jpg

8

Fluoridation of water supply

Image source: http://www.globalresearch.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/131568.jpg

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1.htm

9

Cavities a problem ? usually resulted in tooth loss, infection

Related to poor overall health

1940?s – many communities added fluoride to the water

Highly successful in reducing cavities

Tobacco Use

1940?s and 50?s ? research showed a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer

Public health efforts:

economic costs of tobacco

treatment and prevention programs

Public policy efforts:

restrictions on cigarette advertising

enforcement of access laws

smoking bans in public places

increased taxation

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4843a2.htm

Image source: http://www.fwweekly.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Smoking-1024×1008.jpg

10

Tobacco Use (cont.)

CDC estimates that 1.6 million deaths were prevented by anti-smoking campaigns

Internet has made medical information more accessible (WebMD, Mayo Clinic)

Self-diagnosis by the public ?both good and bad

Technology and public health

Pros:

Better educated public

May encourage people to seek needed medical care

May encourage people to seek second opinions

Cons:

Research shows that people tend to believe they are seriously ill when they are not

Physicians feel they have to ?compete? with the Internet, undermines their experience and authority

?Cyberchondriasis?

Health care system

http://www.improvingchroniccare.org/index.php?p=ICIC_Expanded&s=156

15

Health care includes:

Medical personnel

Mental health workers

Ancillary health care professionals

Public health workers

Case workers

Hospitals

Insurance companies

Medical information systems

Government agencies, policy makers

Evidence of healthcare system

Hammurabi code (1772 BC)

Establishes physician fees and punishment for malpractice

Healthcare system history

Before 1900:

Little known about disease

Most medical care took place in the home

Doctors not specialized

Most people died of acute illness

After 1900:

1929 ? Blue Cross founded at Baylor University ? 1st pre-paid hospital insurance

1930 ? Blue Shield provided insurance for physician reimbursement

http://www.staysmartstayhealthy.com/health_care_history_inthe_united_states

18

Healthcare system history (cont.)

1955 ? 70% of the population had health insurance coverage

1960?s ? Medicare and Medicaid enacted

2010 ? The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

2017 ? The American Health Care Act

Cost of Healthcare
(2021)

Average cost per capita in the US $10,586/year

Highest in the world

Switzerland (2nd) $7,317/year

Concerns about the aging population

80% of healthcare costs are spent on 20% of the population, mostly older adults

72 million Baby Boomers

Source: https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/health-care-costs-by-country

20

Why so expensive?

Patients overutilize specialists

Inefficient and expensive diagnostic process

Billing structure ? high incentive to do unnecessary procedures

High cost of pharmaceuticals

Extremely high administrative costs ($900/person)

US is slower than other countries to use technology to become more efficient and accurate

Fear of litigation

Services not well-coordinated

Quality of health care

Does the US have the best healthcare?

It depends?

US is the leader in innovation and research ? cancer survival rates rank among the best

High safety standards

BUT:

Fewer physicians per capita than any other developed nation

Life expectancy at birth in the US lags behind the world average by about a year

Infant mortality in higher in the US than in any other developed nation

Focus on illness rather than prevention

Lifestyle choices lead to more chronic illness

http://pjustin.com/2011/03/02/the-paleo-experiment-1-how-to-eat-like-a-caveman/

23

More downside

http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/incpovhlth/2011/highlights.html

How Many Americans Are Uninsured (2022)

24

Who gets the care? Health disparities among poor, minorities, and women

31 million uninsured ?healthcare cost is the largest cause of bankruptcy among working families

According to the World Population Review (2021):

?#?

https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/best-healthcare-in-the-world

25

Is healthcare a right?

http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/gastudiesimages/U.S.%20Constitution%20Preamble%203.htm

26

Is technology or policy the solution?

Medicine

Public Health

Health Care System

Biomedical Research

Technology

One major impact of technology on health and society – longevity

Life expectancy = the number of years the average person is expected to live

Life span = the upper limit of how long a person can live

1900: Life Expectancy = 47 years

2021: Life Expectancy

79.11 years in US (46th in the world)

85.29 years in Hong Kong (highest in the world)

Raises the question: What are the limits of life span?

Anti-aging industry was worth $191.5 billion in 2019

Projected to be worth $421.4 billion by 2030

Obsession with youth and immortality?

Source: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/anti-aging-market-revenue-worth-421-4-billion-by-2030-ps-intelligence-301247104.html#:~:text=Anti%2DAging%20Market%20Revenue%20Worth%20%24421.4%20Billion%20by%202030%3A%20P%26S%20Intelligence,-News%20provided%20by

30

How long can we live?

Jeanne Calment

Oldest living person on record

Lived to 122 (1875-1997)

Born the year Alexander Graham Bell made his 1st voice transmission 1

Era of Jesse James gang 1

American Indians forced onto reservations 1

Met Vincent van Gogh 2

1 – http://www.historyorb.com/events-by-year.php

2 – http://anson.ucdavis.edu/~wang/calment.html

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Actor_portraying_Alexander_Graham_Bell_in_an_AT%26T_promotional_film_(1926).jpg

http://www.ralphmag.org/CO/butch-cassidy-gang582x450.gif

http://www.artble.com/imgs/3/2/c/55784/vincent_van_gogh.jpg

http://myamericanodyssey.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Indian_reservation_1892.jpg

33

Key to long life?

It depends?

For the average person:

Genetics contributes about 20-30% to life expectancy

Lifestyle choices are important in living longer and in better health

http://www.smchealth.org/sites/default/files/pictures/AAS/AsianOlderAdult_iStock_000018013869XSmall.JPG

34

Jeanne Calment:

Rode her bicycle until 100 years of age

Attribute her youthfulness to olive oil

BUT?

Ate 2 pounds of chocolate a week

Smoked until age 117

Key to long life?

Key to long life?

Research on ?exceptional longevity? (.0017% of the population)

Centenarians (people who live to at least 100)

Super-centenarians (people who live to at least 110)

Genetics has a strong influence on fighting off disease

Key behavioral indicator: Immunity from stress

Image source: http://genomics.xprize.org/sites/genomics.xprize.org/files/styles/250×250/public/centenarians/Della%20Lundquist%20(centenarian%20at%20her%20100th%20birthday%20party).jpg?itok=R3pOivIq

36

How long can we live?

Experts think that the upper limit of human life span is about 122.

Advances in technology and longevity are likely to make the population have a longer life expectancy overall, but not increase life span.

Summary

Technology and health are closely linked

Significant implications for society

Ethics (cloning, stem cells)

Health care ? human right or not?

Longevity

Can we live forever?

Should we?

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Health and Technology ? Historical Perspectives

BEHS 103: Technology in Contemporary Society

Week 6

Credit: Katherine Im (2021, July)

1

Important areas related to health

Medical care

Biomedical research

Public health

Health care

Longevity

Medical care

Professions dedicated to the treatment and prevention of illness

Heavy reliance on technology:

Diagnostic tools (e.g., blood tests, scanning)

Treatment (e.g., surgery)

Pharmaceuticals (e.g., vaccines, antibiotics)

http://amsaofumiami.webs.com/aboutamsa.htm

3

Biomedical Research

Basic scientists who translate laboratory observations to clinical therapies and treatments

Very heavy reliance on technology (computers, statistical modeling, laboratory equipment and techniques, etc.)

http://www.blog.gurukpo.com/human-genome-project

4

Public Health

Protects and improves the health of communities through prevention research, health promotion, and public education efforts

Large scale efforts

Emphasis on prevention

Source: http://www.whatispublichealth.org/

Image source: http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=ze_6gLpMyQNFIM&tbnid=nxb235TfnNNgxM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.practicefusion.com%2Fehrbloggers%2F2010%2F08%2Femrs-need-to-report-public-health.html&ei=Btz3Ufb7JJT84AOEr4HgCA&bvm=bv.49967636,d.dmg&psig=AFQjCNEvlFjlkgj_rKvgXukBfAnsofM4Fg&ust=1375284590253421

5

Health Care

Umbrella term that encapsulates many components

Includes health care policies and insurance

Includes patient records

Includes ancillary services (mental health, physical therapy, occupational therapy, holistic care)

Highly politicized due to $$$

Origins of medicine

Ancient Egypt (2600 BCE)

Imhotep – Important advisor to King Djoser

First known architect of pyramid

Diagnosed and treated over 200 diseases

Good understanding of anatomy

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/imhotep.htm

8

Ancient Greece (5th C. BCE)

Hippocrates ? Father of Medicine

Hippocratic Oath ? ?first, do no harm?

Believed that illness had a natural cause

Image source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/hippocratic-oath-today.html

9

First medical school (10th-13th c.)

Schola Medica Salernitana Italy

http://www.hektoeninternational.org/Schola-Medica.html

Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ScuolaMedicaMiniatura.jpg

10

Age of Enlightenment (1700-1800)

Rise of scientific inquiry, independent thinking, reason

The world operates according to unchanging laws of nature

People of reason can make the world better

http://library.thinkquest.org/26466/history_of_democracy.html

Image source: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_SggBiqeyvJg/SxLEDTSc7yI/AAAAAAAAAvs/xw5Krdh-oIw/s1600/experimentwithanairpump2.jpg

11

1765

University of Pennsylvania

1st medical school in US

Technology and Medicine

Anthony Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

Invented the 1st microscope able to show bacteria, blood cells

http://www.microscope-microscope.org/basic/microscope-history.htm

Image source: http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=ix4wSR3jdsDRdM&tbnid=GsZB22cWvImBgM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Farchives.microbeworld.org%2Fmicrobes%2Ftools_microscopes.aspx&ei=sOb3UbrIN4364AOZ7oDoDw&bvm=bv.49967636,d.dmg&psig=AFQjCNGWhOK8WfSZTKK0rb6AzlEF_W8GGA&ust=1375287325544071

14

Edward Jenner (1749-1843)

Father of immunology

Vaccination for smallpox

Smallpox highly lethal, very disfiguring

Noticed that milkmaids who contracted coxpox (mild, related type of pox) didn?t contract smallpox

Exposed a little boy to cowpox, then injected him with smallpox – did not contract smallpox

1980 ? Smallpox eradicated

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm79sp.html

16

Joseph Lister (1827-1912)

Discovered that antiseptics kill germs and reduce infection

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Listerine

http://fontanapharmacy.com/products/Listerine-Original-Antiseptic-Mouthwash.html

18

Sanitation

Ignaz Semmelweiss (1818-1865) – ?the Savior of Mothers?

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignaz_Semmelweis

http://www.biography.com/people/florence-nightingale-9423539

19

Louis Pasteur (1822 ? 1895)

Airborne microbes cause disease and putrefaction

Believed that all airborne-diseases could potentially have a vaccine

Developed vaccines for rabies

Discovered ?pasteurization? ? boiling liquids at a temperature that kills microbes without destroying the taste

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/louis_pasteur.htm

20

Robert Koch (1843 ? 1910)

?Father of bacteriology?

Credited with finding the cause of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax

Meticulous laboratory scientist ? developed important lab procedures for studying bacteria

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1905/koch-bio.html

21

Wilhelm Conrad R?ntgen
(1845- 1923)

1895 -accidentally discovered x-rays

Scanning technology

1972 ? CT scan invented by Godfrey Hounsfield and Allan Cormack

1973 ? PET scan invented by Michael Phelps

1981 ? 1st MRI invented by Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield

http://www.imaginis.com/ct-scan/brief-history-of-ct

http://www.ehow.com/about_6312378_history-pet-scans.html

http://www.diffen.com/difference/CT_Scan_vs_MRI

23

Robotic Surgery

daVinci System ? FDA approved in 2000

2021 ? over 7 million surgeries performed

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Da_Vinci_Surgical_System

https://www.davincisurgery.com/#:~:text=Thousands%20of%20surgeons%20around%20the,using%20da%20Vinci%20surgical%20systems

24

Improvements in diagnosis and prevention changed demography of U.S.

1900 ?high rates of death from acute illness earlier in life

2000 ?high rates of death chronic illness later in life

Implications for longevity

Increase in co-morbidity

Implications for disability rates

Implications for health care costs

http://www.aacc.org/publications/cln/2009/july/PublishingImages/Newsbrief-fig_7-09.jpg

25

Technology bending nature

Reproductive technology

Cloning

Stem Cells

Reproductive Technology

Two major advances:

Birth control ? 1960?s

Significant impact on the family structure

Fewer births

Mothers older, more financially stable

More infertility problems

Assistive Reproductive Technologies ? 1970?s

http://birthcontroltab.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Birth-control-advantages.jpg

27

Assistive Reproductive Technologies

IVF ? In vitro fertilization ? egg fertilized by sperm in a petri dish, implanted back in mother

Louise Brown, born July 25, 1978

1st ?Test Tube Baby?

Introcytoplasmic Sperm Injection

Remove the egg, inject sperm directly into the egg, transplant

Used in cases of male infertility

Cloning

Producing an animal in a laboratory that is an exact genetic copy of another

Make a clone activity:

https://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/clickandclone

Is it a clone or not game:

https://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/cloningornot

Dolly the Sheep ? 1st clone (Feb 22, 1997)

http://content.answcdn.com/main/content/img/getty/1/6/1797416.jpg

32

Potential uses of cloning:

Cloning research animals to study disease

Cloning stem cells to repair the human body

Cloning animals for pharmaceutical development

Reproducing extinct or dead species or animal (pets, humans)

Risks:

High failure rate

Development problems (large offspring syndrome)

Abnormal gene expression

Should we clone humans?

Stem Cells

Undifferentiated embryonic or adult cells

Used to create differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes

http://altered-states.net/barry/newsletter329/stem_cells_2.jpg

35

Medicine?s future

(see Week 6 Learning Resources)

http://s.ngm.com/2011/03/big-idea/img/organ-regeneration-ear-615.jpg

36

Not so farfetched?

http://blogs.voanews.com/russia-watch/files/2013/09/Frankenstein1.jpg

37

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