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??How do I write POMS for science

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POMPS Instructions

POMS (Points of Most Significance) There is a reading set assigned for each POM. POMS are inspired by an individual reading the set and represent what you think are the most important points made by the authors of a given paper set. Your POMS statements must be carefully written and thoroughly reviewed for clarity and for sense (a matter of whether the statement says what you want it to say and how clearly you have said it).

3 POMS will be written each week regarding each reading set. All 3 POMS will be submitted as an assignment

You will choose one POMS to post to Canvas discussion board and then review and discuss the POMS of a minimum of 2 of your classmates.

Rule 1. NO more than 30 words I will count

Rule 2: State author’s last name and paper number(s)to make your point (These names and numbers will not be counted for the 30 words maximum). [ Ex: (McComas, 2.1)]

Rule 3: Where possible, cite the authors (by using paper numbers rather than APA style) who support or refute a position with which you would like to draw comparisons or conclusions.

Rule 4: POMS should be submitted on a single page. Put your name in the top right corner and the readings set related to the POMS in the top left corner of the page.

Rule 5: When writing a POM you must include multiple authors within the POM. It is all about understanding relationships.

POMPS

Instructions

POMS (Points of Most Significance)

There is a reading set assigned for each POM.

POMS are

inspired by an individual rea

ding the set and represent what you think are the most important

points made

by the authors

of a given paper set. Your POMS statements must be carefully

written and

thoroughly reviewed for clarity and for sense

(a matter of whether the statement

says what

you want it to say and how clearly you have said it).

3 POMS will be written each week regarding each reading set. All 3 POMS will be submitted as

an assignment

You will choose

one

POMS to post to Canvas discussion board and then review and discuss the

POM

S of a minimum of 2 of your classmates.

Rule 1. NO more than 30 words I will count

Rule 2:

State

author’s

last name

and

paper number(s)

to make your point (These names and

numbers will

not

be counted for the 30 words maximum). [ Ex: (McComas, 2.1)]

Rule 3:

Where possible, cite the authors (by using paper numbers rather than APA style) who

support or re

fute a position with which you would like to draw comparisons or conclusions.

Rule 4:

POMS should be submitted on a single page. Put your

name in the top right corner

and the

readings set related to the POMS in the top left corner

of the page.

Rule 5:

When

writing a POM you must include

multiple authors

within the POM. It is all about

understanding relationships.

POMPS Instructions

POMS (Points of Most Significance) There is a reading set assigned for each POM. POMS are

inspired by an individual reading the set and represent what you think are the most important

points made by the authors of a given paper set. Your POMS statements must be carefully

written and thoroughly reviewed for clarity and for sense (a matter of whether the statement

says what you want it to say and how clearly you have said it).

3 POMS will be written each week regarding each reading set. All 3 POMS will be submitted as

an assignment

You will choose one POMS to post to Canvas discussion board and then review and discuss the

POMS of a minimum of 2 of your classmates.

Rule 1. NO more than 30 words I will count

Rule 2: State author’s last name and paper number(s)to make your point (These names and

numbers will not be counted for the 30 words maximum). [ Ex: (McComas, 2.1)]

Rule 3: Where possible, cite the authors (by using paper numbers rather than APA style) who

support or refute a position with which you would like to draw comparisons or conclusions.

Rule 4: POMS should be submitted on a single page. Put your name in the top right corner

and the readings set related to the POMS in the top left corner of the page.

Rule 5: When writing a POM you must include multiple authors within the POM. It is all about

understanding relationships.

THE CHANGING SCIENCE CURRICULUM

D r M arlow E diger
Truman State University

Science, as a curriculum area, has gone
through many changes recently with the on?
coming o f the Common Core State Standards
(CCSS), Science, Technology, Engineering,
and Mathematics (STEM), as well as the Next
Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

Science is a pari o f everyday life which
individuals experience. Even the drying up of
a puddle o f water after a rainfall has a defi?
nite scientific explanation. We certainly live
in a world o f science. Science has brought on
tremendous changes in society with improved
medical findings and services thus promoting
a longer and healthier life span for many;
labor saving devices with automation and
hydraulic/electrical devices to perform work;
automatic teller machines for instant access
cash, as well as online banking services;
farming with air conditioned cabs on tractors
and combines, and hydraulic lifts for plowing
and seeding. Heavy manual labor has been
eliminaded or greatly minimized.

A modem science curriculum must be in
the offing for each pupil in the school setting.
This is vital to prepare learners for college as
well as the work place.

Developing the Science Curriculum
Inquiry learning is at the heart of ongo?

ing science lessons and units o f study. This
is opposite o f rote learning. With inquiry
learning, pupils achieve facts, concepts, and
generalizations indepth. Questions raised by
pupils need to be encouraged which stimulate
achievement and aid in the inquiry process.
The identified questions might well lead into
problem solve experiences. Problems here

need to possess clarity so that an ensuing
hypothesis might be developed which is ca?
pable o f being tested. A variety o f experienc?
es provide the testing experience in that the
hypothesis results in being accepted, rejected,
or need o f modification. This takes time to
develop the hypothesis, test it, and assess the
results. The process cannot be hurried since
much data gathering is involved in each o f
these flexible steps (Ediger, 2013).

It becomes necessary to reflect upon the
processes and notice which actions come next
in sequence as well as what needs to be im?
proved upon from previous experiences. Re?
flective thinking is a highly worthwhile goal
for all in the societal realm. It assists one to
review/rehearse previous actions in terms of
making possible revisions. Also, knowledge
and skills are put to use in these situations.

Reflection, too, aids in arriving at what is
truly salient to learn. Structural ideas are poi?
gnant in any academic discipline, science in?
cluded. Structure provides a foundation which
provides support for ensuing objectives being
achieved. New ideas acquired then become
related to the structure. Thus, supporting ideas
or a broadening o f structural content is in the
offing. Supporting ideas provide a firmer struc?
ture since they strengthen the structure.

Experimentation needs to be central in on?
going science lessons and units of study. Pu?
pils with teacher guidance need to be involved
in setting up and doing the experiments. One
variable needs to be tested at a given time
which then eliminates others. The experiment
needs to be clearly visible to all who are par?
ticipating. Learners must hypothesize as to

648

The Changing Science Curriculum / 649

outcomes but not jum p to hasty conclusions.
Careful and meticulous observation is need?
ed. Hindrances to pupil achievement need to
be eliminated so that pupils might focus upon
the objectives. Testing the hypothesis and
reaching accurate conclusions are necessary
to secure valid and reliable results. The exper?
iment or a related one may be done to check
conclusions realized. Subject matter from
other reputable, developmental sources may
also enter in to the discussion. This might well
include basal textbook sources.

When reading science subject matter,
meaning is salient; otherwise it delimits
comprehension. Indepth comprehension is
the major objective o f reading. Pupils need to
be able to verify their answers to questions/
problems when reading content. The science
teacher must be a teacher o f reading to assist
pupils in fluent reading. This involves word
recognition which might cause problems to
selected students. Thus, the teacher needs to
guide pupils in utilizing

? structural analysis in word identi?
fication in that a word given by the
learner for the unknown makes sense
contextually in relationship to sur?
rounding words

? phonics whereby a pupil sounds out
letters in the unknown word to come
up with the correct word.

? picture clues, especially for the young
child in which illustrations appear on
almost every page o f science content.
The illustration may prove the correct
word for the unknown by reading the
related pictures.

? graphs and charts on the page being
read which contain the unknown
word. They can provide much in?
formation on individual words to
be deciphered as well as in general
knowledge related directly to indepth
learning o f subject matter.

For young children, textbook content may
be read collectively with the guidance o f the
science teacher. Thus by following along in
the textbook, the pupil notices each word as
the small group reads aloud. Struggling read?
ers on higher grade levels, too, have benefited
from using this procedure. It avoids embar?
rassment for those who misidentify enough
words to hinder comprehension. The goal is
to aid pupils to become fluent readers, attain
relevant facts, concepts, and generalizations,
as well as develop favorable attitudes toward
science. When working in small groups, pu?
pils may assist each other in word identifica?
tion problems. They might also read aloud the
contents to listeners in a groups o f three to five
or work in dyads with two learners involved.

When working in small groups or the class
as a whole, the following guidelines re poi?
gnant to fo llo w :

? respect the thinking o f contributions
made.

? clarify ideas not understood.

? have all participate, if possible.

? stay on the topic being pursued; do
not stray to the irrelevant.

? no one should dominate the discus?
sion (Ediger and Rao, 2012).

Technology in Science

Technology has much to offer in improv?
ing teaching and learning situations. Its use
should optimize science achievement. Thus,
technology in its diverse forms needs to assist
pupils to

? attain vital objectives o f instruction

? provide for individual differences

? provide guidance in evaluation o f
achievement with validity and reli?
ability in mind.

650 / College Student Journal

References
Ediger, Marlow (2013), ?Science-An Indepth Approach,

Connecticut Journal of Science Education, 50 (2),
5-7.

Ediger, Marlow, and D. Bhaskara Rao (2012), Essays
in Teaching Science. New Delhi, India: Discovery
Publishing House.

Copyright of College Student Journal is the property of Project Innovation, Inc. and its
content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the
copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email
articles for individual use.

74 E d u c a t i o n a l l E a d E r s h i p / d E c E m b E r 2 0 1 4 / J a n u a r y 2 0 1 5

T
he need to integrate all
four elements of STEM
takes on urgency with the
advent of the Common
Core State Standards and

the Next Generation Science Stan-
dards (NGSS). Whereas the Common
Core standards promote much greater
attention to technical reading and
writing and emphasize mathematical
modeling, the science standards
explicitly call for more focus on engi-
neering and design and for better
integration of engineering with math-
ematics, science, and technology.

For a nation deeply concerned about
remaining globally competitive?

and raising the scientific, techno-
logical, and quantitative literacy of
its population?these initiatives are
indeed good news. However, realizing
the promise of the Common Core
standards and NGSS won?t be easy.
Despite more than a decade of strong
advocacy by practitioners, employers,
and policymakers, STEM education in
U.S. schools leaves a great deal to be
desired.

In too many schools, science
and math are still taught mostly
in isolation from each other, and
engineering is absent. To be sure, in
a growing number of high schools
and even some middle schools,

a pre- engineering curriculum is
becoming more common. But more
often than not, these engineering
courses are offered as electives without
strong connections to core courses
like physics, algebra, geometry, and
calculus.

Even where STEM offerings are
taking root in a more coherent and
integrated fashion, these courses or
cross-disciplinary projects are rarely
linked to the rest of the core cur-
riculum. Schools aren?t connecting
STEM to English, social studies,
world languages, or the visual and
performing arts. To achieve the cross-
disciplinary vision of the Common

I n t e g r a t i n g

The STEM subjects are too often taught in isolation from one
another?and from the world of work. The Linked Learning

approach is changing that.

Gary Hoachlander

ms et &

Hoachlander.indd 74 10/30/14 7:12 PM

A S C D / w w w . A S C D . o r g 75

Core standards and the deeper
learning sought through NGSS,
schools need a better strategy?one
that nurtures both students? and
teachers? understanding of how STEM
knowledge connects to other fields
of knowledge. Such a strategy would
accelerate progress in making high-
quality STEM education an integral
part of U.S. education.

One promising approach that?s
growing rapidly in California and in
cities like Detroit, Michigan; Houston,
Texas; and Rochester, New York, is
Linked Learning: Pathways to College
and Career. This approach transforms
students? STEM learning by integrating

rigorous academics with career-based
learning and workplace experiences. It
prepares young people for both college
and career, not just one or the other.
And it ignites students? passions by
giving them meaningful learning expe-
riences organized into career-oriented
pathways in fields like engineering,
health care, digital media, agriculture,
the arts, and law.

What Is Linked Learning?
Students in Linked Learning programs
enroll in a career-themed pathway
and take a four-year (or longer)
program of study focused on content
and skills connected to that career. A

well-designed pathway is more than a
sequence of relevant career and tech-
nical courses. It also includes the full
complement of core academic courses,
work-based learning opportunities,
and support services.

Linked Learning is an old idea
getting a new execution. A century
ago John Dewey advocated learning
through occupations. Theme-based
high schools (like Aviation High
School in New York City), career
academies, and industry-themed small
learning communities have been part
of the U.S. education landscape for
some time. But more often than not,
these opportunities existed in spite

Photos courtesy of hasain rasheed

Students use an endoscopy machine to complete a simulation exercise.

Hoachlander_REV.indd 75 11/5/14 4:26 PM

of the system rather than because of
it. They were products of a few inno?
vative teachers or a visionary principal.
Often when their founders left their
school, their innovations disappeared
as well. In addition, the quality of
design and implementation found in
programs using a career pathways
approach has been uneven at best. Fre?
quently, ?academies? or ?pathways?
are little more than names super?
imposed on traditional curriculum and
teaching methods.

Linked Learning has two primary
elements that distinguish it from seem?
ingly similar approaches. First, Linked
Learning is specific about what consti?
tutes high?quality pathway design and
implementation. A formal process of
Linked Learning Pathway certification
validates the quality of its programs
and promotes continual improvement.

Although there are different ways to
deliver Linked Learning, every Linked
Learning pathway must offer students
a comprehensive, multiyear program
of study consisting of four compo?
nents: (1)?academic core courses
in English, social studies, science,
mathematics, world language, and art
that emphasize real?world application
in the industry that is the pathway?s
theme; (2)?a cluster of three or more
technical courses that deliver chal?
lenging technical knowledge and
skill (and, where appropriate, enable
students to obtain a formal industry
certification); (3)?work?based learning
that gives students a chance to interact
and solve real?world problems with
working adults; and (4)?personalized
student supports that include college
and career counseling and supple?
mental instruction in reading, writing,
and mathematics.

Supporting this basic framework is
a set of Linked Learning quality cri?
teria that teachers and school leaders
use to strengthen their pathways and

prepare for formal certification. When
a pathway team believes it?s ready for
certification review, a team of trained
reviewers uses a rubric to evaluate that
pathway.

Validating pathway quality is nec?
essary but not sufficient to ensure
that these kinds of opportunities are
available to ever larger numbers of
students and that Linked Learning
programs don?t become islands of
excellence serving small numbers
of kids. The second distinguishing
feature of Linked Learning, therefore,
is a commitment to implement the
approach systematically throughout the
school district and community sur?
rounding a school that adopts Linked
Learning. Districts must engage a wide

range of stakeholders to create and
sustain a menu of high?quality Linked
Learning pathways that are accessible
to any student who wants this educa?
tional opportunity.

It?s worth emphasizing that adopting
a districtwide system of pathways
doesn?t necessarily mean every school
in the district must offer pathways. Nor
does it mean that pathways displace
all other instructional approaches. It
does mean, however, that the district is
committed to making pathways acces?
sible to any student who wants this
experience and that Linked Learning
is an integral?and sustainable?
approach within the district.

Schools that aren?t ready to create
formal Linked Learning pathways can
benefit from adopting some of the
approach?s features, particularly rich,
standards?based multi disciplinary
projects that stress real?world appli?
cation and let students engage with
working adults around authentic
problems. Similarly, opportunities
to participate in internships with
employers engaged in STEM?intensive
work can help motivate students
and deepen their understanding of
why STEM matters and how it?s used
outside the classroom.

However, schools taking this less
comprehensive approach should use
caution. It?s easy to fall into the trap
of creating projects simply because
they?re more engaging for students
(and teachers!) without paying careful
attention to the standards and other
learning objectives that projects
should be designed to advance. Simi?
larly, work?based learning experiences
are most effective when, by design,
they intentionally and immediately
reinforce knowledge and skills that are
part of students? classroom experience.
Isolated internships, while not without
value, don?t have the integrative power
of high?quality Linked Learning.

76 E d u c a t i o n a l l E a d E r s h i p / d E c E m b E r 2 0 1 4 / J a n u a r y 2 0 1 5

You look at science (or at

least talk of it) as some sort of

demoralizing invention of man,

something apart from real life,

and which must be cautiously

guarded and kept separate from

everyday existence.

But science and everyday life

cannot and should not

be separated.

?Rosalind Franklin
Quoted in The Dark Lady of DNA

by Brenda Maddox

[

B
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R
a

d
/s

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s

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o

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Hoachlander.indd 76 10/30/14 7:12 PM

A S C D / w w w . A S C D . o r g 77

How Does This Approach
Advance STEM?
Although it doesn?t exclusively
promote STEM learning, Linked
Learning offers pathways in many
STEM-related fields, including archi-
tecture, construction, and engineering;
agriculture and natural resources; bio-
medical and health sciences; advanced
manufacturing; digital media arts;
health professions; and information
technology. Because every Linked
Learning pathway must incorporate
all core academic subjects and connect
them to real-world applications, even
pathways in less STEM-dominated
fields?such as law or hospitality?
provide opportunities to enhance stu-
dents? STEM learning.

For example, in a high school
offering Linked Learning pathways in
both information technology and law
and justice, courses in the law and
justice pathway might emphasize the
growing complexities surrounding
the protection of intellectual property
in technology fields, such as patents
on software designs or coding
sequences?issues crucial to the
advancement of STEM in the United
States.

Such infusion of STEM throughout
the curriculum happens at the School
of Engineering and Sciences (SES) in
Sacramento Unified School District
in California, which offers a Linked
Learning pathway on engineering
and design for its 7th through 12th
graders. The school?s mantra is ?Build,
innovate, and design!? Starting in 7th
grade, students must take engineering
and design-related courses every year,
along with core academic courses and
requisite math and science courses
that use multidisciplinary project-
based learning. For high school stu-
dents, the course sequence includes
early college opportunities in collabo-
ration with Sacramento City College

and Sacramento State University.
The school also scaffolds an

increasingly rich series of work-based
learning opportunities connected to
STEM fields. These experiences start
with mentoring and job shadowing
and evolve into internships and
project-based learning opportunities
that have local employers guiding and
evaluating student work.

The School of Engineering and
Sciences is one of several Linked
Learning pathways available to stu-
dents throughout the Sacramento
district. Students less attracted to engi-
neering might attend Arthur A. Ben-
jamin Health Professions High School
(HPHS), which organizes teaching
and learning around careers in health
care. Courses are as STEM-oriented as
those at the School of Engineering and
Sciences, but they focus more on com-
munity health, disease, biophotonics,
and epidemiology. Once a week, both
students and teachers wear scrubs as
a reminder of their commitment to

organize teaching and learning around
the health professions.

Many other California districts use
Linked Learning to offer students a
rich menu of STEM-related pathways.
For instance, Long Beach Unified has
adopted a resolution that by 2016,
90?percent of its high school students
will be enrolled in certified Linked
Learning pathways that include
architecture, construction, and engi-
neering; media and communica-
tions; GREEN (Generating Respect
for Earth, the Environment, and
Nature); and QUEST (Questioning,
Understanding, and Engaging Success
through Technology). In Antioch
Unified School District, students at
two of the comprehensive high schools
can follow pathways in Engineering
and Designing a Green Environment;
Environmental Studies; Leadership
and Public Service; Media Technology;
Law and Justice; or Biotechnology?
or they can attend the theme-based
Dozier-Libbey Medical High School.

A roller coaster project demonstrated the laws of motion and energy in a physics class.

Hoachlander.indd 77 10/30/14 7:12 PM

78 E d u c a t i o n a l l E a d E r s h i p / d E c E m b E r 2 0 1 4 / J a n u a r y 2 0 1 5

In Michigan, Detroit now has eight
Linked Learning high schools, offering
pathways in engineering, health pro-
fessions, and information technology,
to name a few. In Texas, Houston
Independent School District is on
track to deliver Linked Learning in all
its high schools.

Linked Learning
and the Standards
Linked Learning and the implemen-
tation of the Common Core State Stan-
dards and Next Generation Science
Standards are not competing initia-
tives. On the contrary, if the Common

Core and the science standards rep-
resent what students need to know
and be able to do, Linked Learning
provides a strategy for teaching this
essential knowledge and skills.

Linked Learning not only
strengthens STEM instruction in
traditional science and mathematics
courses, but also provides a framework
and rationale for developing more
comprehensive programs of study.
These programs not only include
cutting-edge STEM-focused courses
(such as in information technology
or bio medicine and health), but also
encourage incorporation of STEM
content into core academic sub-
jects. Schools will need such course
strengthening and integration of STEM
instruction to help all students master

these demanding standards.
Here?s an example from the Digital

Media Arts Pathway at Hollywood
High in the Los Angeles Unified
School District. Three years ago, all
seniors in this pathway were charged
with creating and producing a short
video trailer that they would use to
pitch a full-length documentary to
Hollywood studio executives. They
worked on the project in teams
throughout their senior year.

One group of students made a trailer
for a documentary on the history of
racial discrimination in Los Angeles
public schools. To inform their work,

they read writings by James Baldwin
for their English class and studied
Brown v. Board of Education and
other court cases in social studies
class?but they also drew on STEM-
related knowledge to improve their
product. In physics, they studied the
properties of light and optics and how
they affect exposure, depth of field,
white balance, and other aspects of
producing images with still and video
cameras. In their videography class,
they learned about design, lighting,
sound, and using digital technologies
for editing. Perhaps most important,
they learned that iterative revision
leads to an increasingly polished
product.

Eventually, the group pitched
its three-minute trailer to the vice

president of MTV. When I asked
them what was the most important
thing this executive told them about
their trailer, they all replied, ?Spelling
matters!? Their teacher noted that
she tells the students this all the time,
but it didn?t sink in until they heard it
from an industry professional.

This example highlights another
way approaches like Linked Learning
make it more likely students will
master STEM skills. By connecting
STEM-related course content to expe-
riences found in the work world, the
approach gives teachers an answer
to students? frequent?and fair?
question, ?Why do we need to know
this??

Part of the Fabric
If schools continue to teach STEM
content in isolation from the rest of
core academic and technical cur-
riculum?and fail to link that content
to the work done in STEM-related
occupations?we?ll continue to mar-
ginalize STEM. Conceptually and prac-
tically, STEM is part of the rich fabric
of curriculum, teaching, and everyday
life. We need an approach to schooling
that communicates that fact?and cel-
ebrates it. EL

Author?s note: Schools and districts
interested in formally adopting the
Linked Learning approach should
contact Brad Stam at ConnectEd ([email?protected]
connectedcalifornia.org). Many of the
resources needed to plan and implement
a menu of pathways are available free on
Connect Ed?s website (www.connected
california.org) or through Connect Ed
Studios (www.connectedstudios.org),
an online platform supporting Linked
Learning.

Gary Hoachlander ([email?protected]
connectedcalifornia.org) is president
at Connect Ed: The California Center
for College and Career in Berkeley,
California.

If the standards represent what students
need to know and be able to do, Linked
Learning provides a strategy for teaching
this essential knowledge and skills.

Hoachlander.indd 78 10/30/14 7:12 PM

Copyright of Educational Leadership is the property of Association for Supervision &
Curriculum Development and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or
posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users
may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Common Science Standards Are Slow to Catch On in States
Preoccupation with implementing the common core is an oft-cited obstacle

By Liana Heitin

All 26 states that teamed up to
help develop the Next Generation
Science Standards committed to
seriously consider adopting them.
But nine months after the K-12
standards were finaHzed, only eight
of those “lead state partners” have
formally signed on, including Cali-
fornia, Kentucky, and Maryland.
(The District of Columbia also has
adopted them.)

The national pace of adoption
contrasts with that for the Com-
mon Core State Standards, which
were approved in rapid succession
by most states in the months after
they were finalized. Proponents of
the new science standards, however,
emphasize that the speed of adop-
tion across the country is on par
with what the/d expected.

Some states say they’re tied up
with implementation of the com-
mon-core standards for mathemat-
ics and English/language arts, and
are hesitant to effect more instruc-
tional chiinge anytime soon.

In other states, such as Minnesota
and Arizona, legislative restrictions
have slowed the adoption process.

How widespread the standards be-
come remains to be seen. The hope
of organizers from the outset was
that most states would ultimately
embrace the new science standards,
which emphasize science concepts
and processes and ask students to
apply their knowledge through sci-
entific experiments, investigations,
and engineering design.

“I think it will take a couple of
years?I always thought it would
take two to three years?but I’m
very optimistic the majority of
states will adopt,” said Da

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