Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Description: This week we are going to familiarize ourselves with the western, ancient origins of - Study Help
  

 Description: 

This week we are going to familiarize ourselves with the western, ancient origins of Rhetorical Theory. As we move through our chapter readings and assigned media, we will begin to craft connections between what what Aristotle and the great Sophists have to do with argument today.

Particularly when we think of “making argument,” we should be considered what comes to mind. Conflict? Pro-Con? Winners and Losers? Compromise? Resolution? These are all ideas we will confront this week as we dive into the history of rhetorical theory and begin a framework of argument together!

Module Objectives:

  1. Discuss the classical origins of Rhetorical Theory 
  2. Identify the five canons of rhetoric 
  3. Classify the definition of argument

Chapter Readings: 

  • Understanding Rhetoric: A Graphic Guide to Writing 2e, Issue 1: Why Rhetoric p. 50-69 
  • Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings 11e, Chapter 1: Argument: An Introduction p. 2-16

Additional Readings: 

  • Classical Rhetoric 101: Invention 
  • https://www.artofmanliness.com/character/knowledge-of-men/classical-rhetoric-101-the-five-canons-of-rhetoric-invention/
  • Classical Rhetoric 101: Arrangement
  • https://www.artofmanliness.com/character/knowledge-of-men/classical-rhetoric-101-the-five-canons-of-rhetoric-arrangement/
  • Classical Rhetoric 101: Style
  • https://www.artofmanliness.com/character/knowledge-of-men/classical-rhetoric-101-the-five-canons-of-rhetoric-style/
  • Classical Rhetoric 101: Memory
  • https://www.artofmanliness.com/character/knowledge-of-men/classical-rhetoric-101-the-five-canons-of-rhetoric-memory/
  • Classical Rhetoric 101: Delivery 
  • https://www.artofmanliness.com/character/knowledge-of-men/canon-of-delivery/

Instructions: You are expected to read all of the assigned readings before posting on the discussion boards. You may respond to questions posted by the instructor or any student but posts need to be closely related to readings and posted in a timely manner. Post Initial responses and peer responses in a timely manner, responding to instructor discussion threads/prompts or posting uniquely generated content.

Initial Post:

Instructor Prompt #1: Is Everything Argument? (400 words)

Classic and Contemporary Rhetoricians alike argue that “Everything’s an Argument.” From the bumper stickers we see on the drive to work to famous American speeches that are branded into our Nation’s shared memory, we literally cannot escape rhetoric and argument. Do you agree with the sentiment that Everything’s an Argument? Defend your answer using examples from the assigned texts and your own life. 

Instructor Prompt #2: Are the Canons Dead? (400 words)

Now that you are familiar with the Five Canons of Rhetoric, which canon (e.g. Invention, Arrangement, Style, Memory, and Delivery) resonates with your personal argument style the most? Do you struggle with any of these processes when you are crafting arguments? Do you think any of these Rhetorical canons feel outdated or irrelevant to how you or those around you deliver argument?

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

  • Page-52
  • Page-53
  • Page-54
  • Page-55
  • Page-56
  • Page-57
  • Page-58
  • Page-59
  • Page-60
  • Page-61
  • Page-62
  • Page-63
  • Page-64
  • Page-65
  • Page-66
  • Page-67
  • Page-68
  • Page-69
  • Page-70
  • Page-71
  • Page-72
  • Page-73
  • Page-74
  • Page-75
  • Page-76
  • Page-77
  • Page-78
  • Page-79
  • Page-80
  • Page-81
  • Page-82
  • Page-83
  • Page-84

ELEVENTH orr.1

• •

etoric wit

-event it ion

This page intentionally left blank

• •

etoric wit

-event

John D. Ratnage
Arizona State University

John C. Bean
Seattle University

June Johnson
Seattle University

it ion

330 Hudson St r eet, NY NY 10013

Director of English: Karon Bowers
Executive Producer and Publisher: Aron Keesbury
Development Editor: Steven Rigolosi
Marketing Manager: Nicholas Bolt
Program Manager: Rachel Harbour
Project Manager: Nathaniel J. Jones, SPi Global
Cover Designer: Pentagram
Cover Illustration: Christopher DeLorenzo
Manufacturing Buyer: Roy L. Pickering, Jr.
Printer /Binder: LSC Communications, Inc.
Cover Printer: Phoenix Color /Hagerstown

Acknowledgments of third-party content appear on pages 564-566, which constitute an extension of
this copyright page.

PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, and Revel are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education, Inc.,
or its affiliates in the United States and/ or other countries.

Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks that may appear in this work are the
property of their respective owners and any references to third-party trademarks, logos, or other trade
dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any
sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks,
or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates, authors, licensees, or
distributors.

Catalogue-in-Publishing Data is on file with the Library of Congress

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States
of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding
permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights &
Permissions Department, please visit www.pearsoned.com/permissions/.

1 18

Rental Edition ISBN 10: 0-134-75974-5
Rental Edition ISBN 13: 978-0-134-75974-6

Ala Carte ISBN 10: 0-134-76096-4
Ala Carte ISBN 13: 978-0-134-76096-4

Access Code Card ISBN 10: 0-134-80785-5
Access Code Card ISBN 13: 978-0-134-80785-0

Instructor Review Copy ISBN 10: 0-134-77059-5
Instructor Review Copy ISBN 13: 978-0-134-77059-8

• •

r1e

Part One Principles of Argument 1

1 Argument: An Introduction 2

2 The Core of an Argument : A Claim
with Reasons 17

3 The Logical Structure of Arguments:
Logos 32

4 Using Evidence Effectively
5 Moving Your Audience:

Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

6 Responding to Objections
and Alternative Views

Part Two Entering an
Argumentative
Conversation

52

67

83

103

7 Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically 104

8 Argument as Inquiry: Reading,
Summarizing, and Speaking Back 127

Part Three Expanding Our
Understanding of
Argument 155

9 Making Visual and Multimodal
Arguments

10 An Alternative to Argument:
Collaborative Rhetoric

Part Four Arguments in Depth:
Types of Claims

11 An Introduction to the
Types of Claims

156

189

211

212

12 Definition and Resemblance
Arguments

13 Causal Arguments
14 Evaluation and Ethical

Arguments

15 Proposal Arguments

Part Five The Researched
Argument

16 Finding and Evaluating
Sources

17 Incorporating Sources into
Your Own Argument

18 Citing and Documenting
Sources

Appendix Informal Fallacies

Part Six An Anthology of
Arguments

Choices for a Sustainable World

Post-Fact, Post-Truth Society?

Public Health

Challenges in Education

Self-Driving Cars

Immigration in the Twenty-First
Century

Argument Classics

221

250

280

306

341

342

360

375

397

405

406

431

461

477

511

532

549

v

This page intentionally left blank

Preface
Acknowledgments

Part One Principles of Argument

1 Argument: An Introduction
What Do We Mean by Argument?

Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel

Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate

Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit

An Explicit Argument Opposing Legalization
of Marijuana

For Writing and Discussion: Implicit and
Explicit Arguments

••
xvn

•••
XXlll

1

2

3

3

3

4

5

5

The Defining Features of Argument 8

Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims 8

Argument Is Both a Process and a Product

Argument Combines Truth-Seeking and
Persuasion

Argument and the Problem of Truth in the
21st Century

For Writing and Discussion: Role-Playing
Arguments

Conclusion

2 The Core of an Argument:
A Claim with Reason

The Classical Structure of Argument

Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle

Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument

Difference between an Issue Question
and an Information Question

How to Identify an Issue Question

For Writing and Discussion: Information
Questions Versus Issue Questions

Difference between a Genuine Argument
and a Pseudo-Argument

10

10

12

14

16

17

17

19

21

21

22

22

23

For Writing and Discussion: Reasonable
Arguments Versus Pseudo-Arguments

Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by
Reasons

What Is a Reason?

For Writing and Discussion: Using Images to
Support an Argument

Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses

For Writing and Discussion: Developing
Claims and Reasons

Conclusion

Writing Assignment: An Issue Question
and Working Thesis Statements

3 The Logical Structure
of Arguments: Logos

An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the

25

25

26

27

29

30

30

30

32

“Logical Structure” of an Argument? 32

Formal Logic Versus Real-World Logic 33

The Role of Assumptions 33

The Core of an Argument: The Enthymeme 34
The Power of Audience-Based Reasons 35

For Writing and Discussion: Identifying
Underlying Assumptions and Choosing
Audience-Based Reasons

Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments:

36

The Toulmin System 36

For Writing and Discussion: Developing
Enthymemes with the Toulmin Schema 41

Using Toulmin’s Schema to Plan and Test Your
Argument 42

Hypothetical Example: Cheerleaders as
Athletes 42

First Part of Chandale’ s Argument 43

Continuation of Chandale’ s Argument 44

Extended Student Example: Girls and Violent
Video Games 45

••
VII

viii Contents

Carmen Tieu (Student Essay), Why Violent Video
Games Are Good for Girls 47

The Thesis-Governed “Self-Announcing”
Structure of Classical Argument 49

For Writing and Discussion: Reasons,
Warrants, and Conditions of Rebuttal 50

Use Specific Examples and Illustrations

Use Narratives

Use Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with
Appropriate Connotations

For Writing and Discussion: Incorporating
Appeals to Pathos

Conclusion 50 Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of
A Note on the Informal Fallacies 51 Arguments

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing an Writing Assignment: Plan of an Argument’s
Details 51 Argument from the Perspectives of Logos,

Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

4 Using Evidence Effectively 52
Kinds of Evidence 52

The Persuasive Use of Evidence 55

Apply the STAR Criteria to Evidence 55

Establish a Trustworthy Ethos 57

Be Mindful of a Source’s Distance from
Original Data 57

Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence 58

Angle of Vision and the Selection and
Framing of Evidence 59

For Writing and Discussion: Creating
Contrasting Angles of Vision 60

Examining Visual Arguments: Angle of Vision 60

Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence 62

Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence 64

For Writing and Discussion: Using Strategies
to Frame Statistical Evidence 65

Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence 65
Conclusion 65

Writing Assignment: A Supporting-Reasons
Argument 66

5 Moving Your Audience: Ethos,
Pathos, and Kairos 67

Logos, Ethos, and Pathos as Persuasive
Appeals: An Overview 68

How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to
Credibility 69

How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and
Emotions 70

Use Concrete Language 71

Using Images to Appeal to Logos, Ethos,
Pathos, and Kairos

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing
Images as Appeals to Pathos

Examining Visual Arguments: Logos, Ethos,
Pathos, and Kairos

How Audience-Based Reasons Appeal
to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

For Writing and Discussion: Planning an
Audience-Based Argumentative Strategy

Conclusion

Writing Assignment: Revising a Draft
for Ethos, Pathos, and Audience-Based
Reasons

6 Responding to Objections
and Alternative Views

One-Sided, Multisided, and Delayed-Thesis
Arguments

Determining Your Audience’s Resistance
to Your Views

Appealing to a Supportive Audience:
One-Sided Argument

Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided
Audience: Classical Argument

Summarizing Opposing Views

For Writing and Discussion: Distinguishing
Fair from Unfair Summaries

Refuting Opposing Views

Strategies for Rebutting Evidence

Conceding to Opposing Views

72

73

74

74

74

76

76

77

78

79

81

82

82

83

84

85

86

87

87

88

89
90
91

Example of a Student Essay Using Refutation
Strategy 92

Trudie Makens (Student Essay), Bringing
Dignity to Workers: Make the Minimum
Wage a Living Wage

For Writing and Discussion:
Refutation Strategies

Appealing to a Resistant Audience:
Delayed-Thesis Argument

ALEXANDER CHANCELLOR, Oh,

92

94

94

How I Will Miss the Plastic Bag 95

Writing a Delayed-Thesis Argument 97
Conclusion 98

Writing Assignment: A Classical Argument
or a Delayed Thesis Argument 98

Reading 98

Lauren Shinozuka (Student Essay), The
Dangers of Digital Distractedness 98

Part 1Wo Entering an
Argumentative
Conversation 103

7 Analyzing Arguments
Rhetorically 104

Thinking Rhetorically about a Text 105

Reconstructing a Text’s Rhetorical Context 105

Author, Motivating Occasion, and Purpose 105

Audience 107

Genre 107

Angle of Vision 108

Asking Questions That Promote Rhetorical
Thinking 109

For Writing and Discussion: Practicing
Rhetorical Analysis 111

Conducting a Rhetorical Analysis of a
Source Text 112

KATHRYN JEAN LOPEZ, Egg Heads 113

For Writing and Discussion: Identifying
Rhetorical Features 116

Our Own Rhetorical Analysis of “Egg Heads” 116
Conclusion

Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis

119

120

Contents ix

Readings

ELLEN GOODMAN, Womb for Rent

121

122

Critiquing “Womb for Rent” 123

Zachary Stumps (Student Essay), A Rhetorical
Analysis Of Ellen Goodman’s “Womb For Rent” 123

8 Argument as Inquiry: Reading,
Summarizing, and Speaking
Back 127

Finding Issues to Explore 128

Do Some Initial Brainstorming 128

Be Open to the Issues All Around You 128

Explore Ideas by Freewriting 129

For Writing and Discussion: Responding to
Visual Arguments About a Living Wage 131

Explore Ideas by Idea Mapping 133

Explore Ideas by Playing the Believing and
Doubting Game 133

For Writing and Discussion: Playing the
Believing and Doubting Game 135

Summarizing a Stakeholder’s Argument 135

JAMES SUROWIECKI, The Pay Is Too
Damn Low 136

Thinking Steps for Writing a Summary 137

For Writing and Discussion: Does/Says
Statements 138

Examples of Summaries 139

Responding to a Stakeholder ‘s Argument 140

Practicing Believing: Willing Your Own
Acceptance of the Writer’s Views 140

Practicing Doubting: Willing Your Own
Resistance to the Writer’s Views 140

For Writing and Discussion: Raising Doubts
About Surowiecki’s Argument 141

Thinking Dialectically 142

For Writing and Discussion: Practicing
Dialectic Thinking with Two Articles 143

MICHAEL SALTSMAN, To Help the
Poor, Move Beyond “Minimum” Gestures 143

Three Ways to Foster Dialectic Thinking 144
Conclusion

Writing Assignment: An Argument
Summary or a Formal Exploratory Essay

146

146

X Contents

Reading 148

Trudie Makens (Student Essay), Should
Fast-Food Workers Be Paid $15 per Hour? 148

Part Three Expanding Our
Understanding
of Argument 155

9 Making Visual and
Multimodal Arguments 156

Understanding Visual Design Elements in
Multimodal Argument 157

Use of Type 158

Use of Space and Layout 159

Use of Color 161

Use of Images and Graphics 161

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing an
Advocacy Ad 164

The Compositional Features of Photographs
and Drawings 165

Compositional Features to Examine in
Photos and Drawings 166

An Analysis of a Multimedia Video
Argument Using Words, Images, and Music 168

For Writing and Discussion: Thinking
Rhetorically about Photos 171

The Genres of Multimodal Argument 172

Posters and Fliers 172

Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements 174

Cartoons 175

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing
Posters Rhetorically 175

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing
Cartoons 177

Websites 177

Advocacy Videos 178

Constructing Your Own Multimodal Arguments 178

Guidelines for Creating the Visual Elements
in Posters, Fliers, and Advocacy Ads 178

Guidelines for Creating Video Arguments 179

For Writing and Discussion: Developing
Ideas for an Advocacy Ad or Poster
Argument 180

Using Information Graphics in Arguments 180

How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories 181

Using a Graph to Tell a Story 182

Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument 185

A Note on How Graphics Frame Data
Rhetorically 186
Conclusion 187

Writing Assignment: A Visual Argument
Rhetorical Analysis, a Visual Argument, or
a Short Argument Using Quantitative Data 188

10 An Alternative to Argument:
Collaborative Rhetoric 189

The Appropriateness and Usefulness of
Collaborative Rhetoric 190

The Principles of Collaborative Rhetoric 191

Practicing N onjudgmental Listening 192

Identifying Values, Emotions, and Identities 192

Seeking Common Ground 193

Promoting Openness to Ongoing
Communication and Change 194

For Writing and Discussion: Listening
Empathically and Seeking Common
Ground 194

Preparing for Collaborative Rhetoric Through
Reflective Writing and Discussion 196

Preparing for Collaborative Rhetoric
Through Reflective Writing 196

Practicing Collaborative Rhetoric in
Discussion 197

For Writing and Discussion: Conducting
a Collaborative Rhetoric Discussion 197

Writing an Open Letter as Collaborative
Rhetoric 198

Colleen Fontana (Student Essay), An Open
Letter to Robert Levy in Response to His
Article “They Never Learn” 199

Conclusion 204

Writing Assignment: An Open Letter as
Collaborative Rhetoric 204

Reading 205

Monica Allen (Student Essay), An Open
Letter to Christopher Eide in Response to
His Article “High-Performing Charter Schools
Can Close the Opportunity Gap” 205

Part Four Arguments in Depth:
Types of Claims 211

11 An Introduction to the Types
of Claims 212

The Types of Claims and Their Typical Patterns
of Development 213

For Writing and Discussion: Identifying
Types of Claims 214

Using Claim Types to Focus an Argument and
Generate Ideas: An Example 214

Writer 1: Ban £-Cigarettes 215

Writer 2: Promote £-Cigarettes as a Preferred
Alternative to Real Cigarettes 216

Writer 3: Place No Restrictions on £-Cigarettes 217

Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work
Together in Arguments 217

Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments 217

For Writing and Discussion: Exploring
Different Claim Types and Audiences 218

An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument 219

ALEX HUTCHINSON, Your Daily
Multivitamin May Be Hurting You 219

12 Definition and Resemblance
Arguments

What Is at Stake in an Argument about

221

Definition and Resemblance? 222

Consequences Resulting from Categorical
Claims 223

The Rule of Justice: Things in the Same
Category Should Be Treated the Same Way 223

For Writing and Discussion: Applying the
Rule of Justice 224

Types of Categorical Arguments 225

Simple Categorical Arguments 225

For Writing and Discussion: Supporting
and Rebutting Simple Categorical Claims 225

Definition Arguments 226

Resemblance Argument Using Analogy 226

For Writing and Discussion: Developing
Analogies 227

Resemblance Arguments Using Precedent 228


Contents XI

For Writing and Discussion: Using Claims of
Precedent 229

Examining Visual Arguments: Claim about
Category {Definition)

The Criteria-Match Structure of Definition
Arguments

229

230

Overview of Criteria-Match Structure 230

Toulmin Framework for a Definition Argument 231

For Writing and Discussion: Identifying
Criteria and Match Issues 232

Creating Criteria Using Aristotelian Definition 232

For Writing and Discussion: Working with
Criteria 234

Creating Criteria Using an Operational
Definition 234

Conducting the Match Part of a Definition
Argument 234

Idea-Generating Strategies for Creating Your
Own Criteria-Match Argument 235

Strategy 1: Research How Others Have
Defined the Term 235

Strategy 2: Create Your Own Extended
Definition 236

For Writing and Discussion: Developing a
Definition 238

Writing Assignment: A Definition Argument 239

Exploring Ideas

Identifying Your Audience and Determining
What’s at Stake

Organizing a Definition Argument

Questioning and Critiquing a Definition
Argument

Readings

Arthur Knopf (Student Essay), Is Milk
a Health Food?

Alex Mullen (Student Essay), A Pirate But
Not a Thief: What Does “Stealing” Mean
in a Digital Environment?

MARK OPPENHEIMER, How Do We
Define Adulthood?

13 Causal Arguments
An Overview of Causal Arguments

Kinds of Causal Arguments

239

240

240

240

242

242

245

247

250

251

252

xii Contents

Toulmin Framework for a Causal Argument 254

For Writing and Discussion: Developing
Causal Chains 256

Two Methods for Arguing That One Event
Causes Another 256

First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism
Directly 257

Second Method: Infer Causal Links Using
Inductive Reasoning 258

For Writing and Discussion: Developing
Plausible Causal Chains Based on
Correlations 259

Examining Visual Arguments: A Causal Claim 259

Key Terms and Inductive Fallacies in Causal
Arguments 260

A Glossary of Key Terms 260

Avoiding Common Inductive Fallacies
That Can Lead to Wrong Conclusions 261

For Writing and Discussion: Brainstorming
Causes and Constraints 262

Writing Assignment: A Causal Argument 262

Exploring Ideas 262

Identifying Your Audience and Determining
What’s at Stake 263

Organizing a Causal Argument 264

Questioning and Critiquing a Causal
Argument 265

Readings 266

Jesse Goncalves (Student Essay), What
Causes Math Anxiety? 267

KRIS SAKNUSSEMM, Mirror, Mirror on the
Wall, Are We Really Here at All? Can We Tell? 273

Carlos Macias (Student Essay), “The Credit
Card Company Made Me Do It!” The Credit
Card Industry’s Role in Causing Student Debt 275

14 Evaluation and Ethical
Arguments

An Overview of Categorical and Ethical
Evaluation Arguments

Constructing a Categorical Evaluation
Argument

Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical
Evaluations

280

282

282

283

Developing Your Criteria 284

Making Your Match Argument 285

Examining Visual Arguments: An
Evaluation Claim 286

For Writing and Discussion: Developing
Criteria and Match Arguments 287

Constructing an Ethical Evaluation Argument 288

Consequences as the Base of Ethics 288

Principles as the Base of Ethics 289

Example Ethical Arguments Examining
Capital Punishment 289

For Writing and Discussion: Developing an
Ethical Argument 291

Common Problems in Making Evaluation
Arguments 291

Writing Assignment: An Evaluation or
Ethical Argument 292

Exploring Ideas 292

Identifying Your Audience and Determining
What’s at Stake 293

Organizing an Evaluation Argument 293

Questioning and Critiquing a Categorical
Evaluation Argument 293

Critiquing an Ethical Argument 294

Readings 295

Lorena Mendoza-Flores (Student Essay),
Silenced and Invisible: Problems of
Hispanic Students at Valley High School 295

Hadley Reeder (Student Essay), A Defective
and Detrimental Dress Code 299

JUDITH DAAR AND EREZ ALONI, Three
Genetic Parents For One Healthy Baby 302

SAMUEL AQUILA, The “Therapeutic
Cloning” of Human Embryos 303

15 Proposal Arguments 306
The Special Features and Concerns of Proposal
Arguments 308

Practical Proposals Versus Policy
Proposals 308

Toulmin Framework for a Proposal
Argument 308

Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments 309

Developing a Proposal Argument 310

Examining Visual Arguments: A
Proposal Claim 311

Convincing Your Readers That a Problem
Exists 311

Explaining the Proposed Solution: Showing
the Specifics of Your Proposal 312

Offering a Justification: Convincing Your
Readers That the Benefits of Your Proposal
Outweigh the Costs 313

Using Heuristic Strategies to Develop
Supporting Reasons for Your Proposal 313

The Claim Types Strategy 314

The Stock Issues Strategy 315

For Writing and Discussion: Generating
Ideas Using the Claim Types Strategy 316

For Writing and Discussion: Brainstorming
Ideas for a Proposal 317

Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or
Advertisements 317

Writing Assignment: A Proposal
Argument 318

Exploring Ideas 320

Identifying Your Audience and Determining
What’s at Stake 320

Organizing a Proposal Argument 321

Designing a One-Page Advocacy Poster or
Advertisement 322

Designing PowerPoint Slides or Other Visual
Aids for a Speech 322
Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal
Argument 323

Readings 323

Megan Johnson (Student Essay), A Practical
Proposal 324

Ivan Snook (Student Essay), Flirting with
Disaster: An Argument against Integrating
Women into the Combat Arms 328

Sandy Wainscott (Student Essay), Why
McDonald’s Should Sell Meat and Veggie
Pies: A Proposal to End Subsidies for
Cheap Meat 336

MARCEL DICKE AND ARNOLD VAN
HUIS, The Six-Legged Meat of the Future 338

•••
Contents XIII

Part Five The Researched
Argument 341

16 Finding and Evaluating
Sources 342

Formulating a Research Question Instead of
a Topic 343

Thinking Rhetorically About Kinds of Sources 343

Identifying Kinds of Sources Relevant to
Your Question 343

Approaching Sources Rhetorically 343

For Writing and Discussion: Identifying
Types of Sources 347

Finding Sources 348

Conducting Interviews 348

Gathering Source Data from Surveys or
Questionnaires 349

Finding Books and Reference Sources 349

Using Licensed Databases to Find Articles
in Scholarly Journals, Magazines, and News
Sources 350

Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the
World Wide Web 350

Selecting and Evaluating Your Sources and
Taking Purposeful Notes 351

Reading with Rhetorical Awareness 351
Evaluating Sources 353

Criteria for Evaluating a Web Source 355

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing the
Rhetorical Elements of Two Websites 357

Taking Purposeful Notes 357
Conclusion 359

17 Incorporating Sources into
Your Own Argument 360

Using Sources for Your Own Purposes 360
Writer 1: A Causal Argument Showing
Alternative Approaches to Reducing Risk of
Alcoholism 361

Writer 2: A Proposal Argument Advocating
Vegetarianism 362


XIV Contents

Writer 3: An Evaluation Argument Looking
Skeptically at Vegetarianism 362

For Writing And Discussion: Using a
Source for Different Purposes 363

Using Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation 363

Summarizing 363

Paraphrasing 363

Quoting 365

Punctuating Quotations Correctly 366

Quoting a Complete Sentence 366

Quoting Words and Phrases 366

Modifying a Quotation 367

Omitting Something from a Quoted Passage 367

Quoting Something That Contains a Quotation 368

Using a Block Quotation for a Long Passage 368

Appendix Informal Fallacies 397

The Difference Between Formal and Informal
Logic 397

An Overview of Informal Fallacies 398

Fallacies of Pathos 399

Fallacies of Ethos 400

Fallacies of Logos 401

For Writing And Discussion: Persuasive or
Fallacious? 403

Part Six An Anthology of
Arguments 405

Choices for a Sustainable World 406

JOSEPH ALDY, “Curbing Climate Change Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive
Tags 369 Has a Dollar Value Here’s How and Why

Attributive Tags versus Parenthetical Citations 369

Creating Attributive Tags to Shape Reader
Response 370

Avoiding Plagiarism 371

Why Some Kinds of Plagiarism May Occur
Unwittingly 371

Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism 372

For Writing And Discussion: Avoiding
Plagiarism 37 4

We Measure It” 407

JAMES A. BAKER, “The Conservative Case
for a Carbon Tax and Dividends” 409

DAVID ROBERTS, “Putting a Price on Carbon
is a Fine Idea. It’s Not the End-All Be-All” 411

JULIAN CRIBB, “Our Human Right Not to Be
Poisoned” 416

ALEX HALLATT, “I Stopped Wearing
Leather … ” 419

Conclusion 37 4 BILL MCKIBBEN, “The Question I Get Asked
the Most” 419

18 Citing and Documenting CHELSEA M. ROCHMAN, “Ecologically
Sources 375 Relevant Data Are Policy-Relevant Data” 422

The Correspondence between In-Text Citations
and the End-of-Paper List of Cited Works 375

MLA Style 377

In-Text Citations in MLA Style 377

Works Cited List in MLA Style 379

BEN ADLER, “Banning Plastic Bags is Great for
the World, Right? Not So Fast” 424

SUN SENTINEL EDITORIAL BOARD, “Plastic
Bag Ban: Let’s Not Get Carried Away” 427

For Writing and Discussion: Choices for a
Sustainable World 429

MLA Works Cited Citation Models 379

MLA-Style Research Paper 389 Writing Assignment: Rhetorical Analysis 430

APA Style 389

In-Text Citations in APA Style 390
Post-Fact, Post-Truth Society? 431

References List in APA Style 390 DAVID UBERTI, “The Real History of Fake

APA References Citation Models 391 News” 432

APA-Style Research Paper 396 EUGENE KIELY AND LORI ROBERTSON,
Conclusion 396 “How to Spot Fake News” 437

Contents XV

SARAH WILSON, “I’ve Heard All the
Arguments against a Sugar Tax. I’m Still

KARSTEN SCHLEY, “Warning!! This
Newspaper May Contain Traces of
Journalism” 442 Calling for One in Australia” 471

HARTFORD COURANT EDITORIAL BOARD,
“Soda Tax Is Nanny-State Overreach” 473

JACK SHAFER, “The Cure for Fake News Is
Worse Than the Disease; Stop Being Trump’s
Twitter Fool” 442 SIGNE WILKINSON, “More Jobs Lost to Soda
ROBERT P. GEORGE AND CORNEL
WEST, “Sign the Statement: Truth-Seeking,
Democracy, and Freedom of Thought and
Expression” 445

LUCIANO FLORID!, “Fake News and a
400-Year-Old Problem: We Need to Resolve the
“Post-Truth” Crisis” 446

PETER WAYNE MOE, “Teaching Writing in a
Post-Truth Era” 449

MARCUS DU SAUTOY, “Why Aren’t People
Listening to Scientists?” 450

JEFF HESTER, “The Hermeneutics of Bunk:
How a Physicist Gave Postmodernism a
B~~E~” ~2

TIMOTHY CAULFIELD, “Blinded by Science:
Modern-Day Hucksters Are Cashing In on
Vulnerable Patients” 454

For Writing and Discussion: Dealing with
Misinformation, Fake News, and
Misconceptions 459

Writing Assignment: Researched Proposal
Speech on Understanding and Evaluating
Scientific Claims 460

Public Health 461

DEMOCRAT AND CHRONICLE EDITORIAL
BOARD, “Keep Up Fight against Childhood
Obesity” 462

SAN DIEGO UNION-TRIBUNE EDITORIAL
BOARD, “Fed or Fed Up? Why We Support
Easing School Lunch Rules” 463

CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND
PREVENTION, “Tips for Parents Ideas to Help
Children Maintain a Healthy Weight” 463

JULIA BELLUZ AND JAVIER ZARRACINA,
“We Need to Call American Breakfast What It
Often Is: Dessert” 468

Taxes!”

LOS ANGELES TIMES EDITORIAL BOARD,
“Are We Subsidizing a Public Health Crisis by
Allowing the Poor to Buy Soda with Food

474

Stamps?” 474

For Writing and Discussion: Public
Health 476

Writing Assignment: Multimodal Argument:
A Storyboard or Cartoon 476

Challenges in Education 477

RACHEL M. COHEN, “Rethinking School
Discipline” 478

RICHARD ULLMAN, “Restorative Justice: The
Zero-Tolerance-Policy Overcorrection” 487

CASSADY ROSENBLUM, “Take It From a New
Orleans Charter School Teacher: Parents Don’t
Always Get School Choice Right” 489

PAUL FELL, “Educators Try to Keep Public
Education away from School Vouchers and
Charter Schools” 491

DOUGLAS N. HARRIS, “Why Managed
Competition Is Better Than a Free Market for
Schooling” 492

RACHEL LAM, “Separate but Unequal” 501

RAFAEL WALKER, “How Canceling
Controversial Speakers Hurts Students” 503

GINA BARRECA, “I’m Not Giving Students
“Trigger Warnings”” 505

ONNI GUST, “I Use Trigger Warnings But
I’m Not Mollycoddling My Students” 507

For Writing and Discussion: Challenges in
Education

Writing Assignment: A Researched
Evaluation Argument on an Educational
Policy

509

510

xvi Contents

Self-Driving Cars

ROBIN CHASE, “Self-Driving Cars Will
Improve Our Cities, If They Don’t Ruin
Them”

SCOTT SANTENS, “Self-Driving Trucks Are
Going to Hit Us Like a Human-Driven
Truck”

DREW HENDRICKS, “Five Reasons You

511

512

519

Should Embrace Self-Driving Cars” 526

ENGL 102

Netiquette Statement
In order to maintain a positive online environment for our class, we all need to follow the
netiquette guidelines summarized below.
All students are expected to:
1. show respect for the instructor and for other students in the class
2. respect the privacy of other students
3. express differences of opinion in a polite and rational way
4. maintain an environment of constructive criticism when commenting on the work of other
students
5. complete all assignments on time
6. avoid bringing up irrelevant topics when involved in group discussions or other collaborative
activities

The following list summarizes the kind of behavior that will not be tolerated. Each item listed
below is grounds for removal from the class.

Students should not:
1. Show disrespect for the instructor or for other students in the class
2. Send messages or comments that are threatening, harassing, or offensive
3. Use inappropriate or offensive language
4. Convey a hostile or confrontational tone when communicating or working collaboratively with
other students
5.USE ALL UPPERCASE IN THEIR MESSAGES — THIS IS THE EQUIVALENT OF
SHOUTING!!!
6. Place images in the body of their discussion questions messages. Other students and the
instructor may be using a dial-up connection. If you feel compelled to refer to an image please
either attach the image to the DQ message or upload the image to the Web and place a link to it
in your message.

If I feel that a student is violating any of the above guidelines, I will contact that student to
discuss the situation in person. If you feel that a student is behaving inappropriately, please
send me a private e-mail message explaining the situation as soon as possible.

Discussion Board Tips / Rubric
1. Contribute in a timely manner and frequently. Do not wait until the end of the discussion

window for each week. This will help you to stay on top of the discussion and to gain the
most from it. If you develop a habit of just jumping in at the beginning, in the middle or at
the end, you will not be able to read all the discussion comments, capture the key issues
discussed and to contribute in a meaningful manner.

2. ​Read posts from others thoroughly and reflect before responding.
3. Contribution to the discussion should not be based on cutting and pasting information

from different resources but rather on a summary of findings from key resources as they
pertain to the topic being discussed in your own words. Respond to others’ comments by
writing your comment first and then update your subject line.

4. Posts should be sound, with argument or analysis supported by research and literature,
with attention to grammar, typos, and punctuation

5. ​Be clear and concise. Short comments may be appropriate in some cases but effective
comments may need to be longer to be more comprehensive (Suggest 2 paragraphs
maximum).

6. But I don’t know what to say! (Hint: “I agree” does not only not count as a contribution, it
may annoy your classmates!) Instead:

● Add to the discussion by adding new information to (amplifying) the point made
that you agree with

● If you disagree with an answer, post yours and explain why
● Think something is missing from the discussion? Broaden the perspective.
● If you do not understand (although you don’t have an answer either), explain

what you do understand about the topic in a couple of sentences, and ask for
clarification from online classmates.

● Think you’ve read or learned information from another source that would be
helpful? Post a link to that news article, blog post, etc.

To participate effectively, you must have ​read ​all of the assigned material. ​One of the
purposes of discussion is to demonstrate that you’ve read and understood it. We can discuss
what different people understood from the readings, but everyone must be grounded in a close
reading of the assigned materials. You are expected to ​post two times​ in the Discussion Board
and​ respond two times​ to peers (total of 4 posts per week). In the discussion feel free to
expand the conversation and integrate relevant personal examples and outside information. You
must​ link any outside examples to the assigned readings, articles, discussion board prompts, or
week content–the expectation is that you include ​clear evidence ​that you engaged deeply with
assigned readings (providing brief summary and/or quoting to specific examples in the
readings).

In your replies to two peers, offer feedback, ask further questions, or provide a personal
reflection or commentary on their post. When replying to your peers consider replying using one
or more of the following roles:

● Validating​–​Validate the contributions of your peers and explain why their contributions
resonate

● Resourceful​–​Share or create resources that contribute to the discussion
● Inquiring​–​Offer feedback, ask questions, provide reflection or commentary
● Community Expander​–​Lead the discussion to deeper discourse and branch into new,

but related topics

EVALUATION RUBRIC

Quality
(3)

Initiative
(3)

Expanding on
Discussion

(3)

Relevance
(3)

Timeliness*
(3)

#of Posts
(5)

Thoughtful,
supported with
argumentation (not
opinion) and facts.
Appropriate
academic level,
correct grammar,
punctuation/
spelling.

Posting
questions,
clarifying posts
from others,
providing links
to other
relevant
materials.

Expanding to
see the “big
picture,” adding
something new,
crediting peers.

On topic,
pertains to
important
questions or
themes.

Contribute when
threads are alive
and others will
benefit from
ideas offered.

Per week:
Answer 3
questions posted
by instructor AND
respond to 3
classmates’
responses
(minimum).
Respond to
questions and
comments that
interest you most
and demonstrate
your knowledge
of the material.

error: Content is protected !!